Literature on the topic of disability has been published by numerous professionals in several different academic disciplines. Others such as parents, siblings, journalists, advocates, and even the curious have also contributed to the literature on disability. Below are several bibliographies covering selected themes in relation to disability. These bibliographies are in no way complete and are just a small fraction of the available literature on disabilities. The bibliographies include historical works as well as contemporary texts and incorporate a wide range of authors, from historians to amateur authors.


disABILITY and Advocacy Bibliography
Cures for disABILITIES Bibliography
disABILITY and Education Bibliography
Eugenics Bibliography
disABILITY and the Law Bibliography
disABILITY and the Media Bibliography
disABILITY and Medical Establishment Bibliography
Sports and disABILITY Bibliography

disABILITY and Advocacy Bibliography

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Beale, Irene A. William P. Letchworth: A Man for Others. Geneseo, NY: Chestnut Hill, 1982.

A bibliography detailing the remarkable life of William P. Letchworth. As a social reformer and philanthropist, Letchworth contributed to the causes of the disabled and helped to establish Craig Colony for epileptics.

Browning, Philip L., Cindy Rhoades, and Anita Crosson. Advancing your Citizenship: An Annotated Bibliography on Consumerism/Advocacy for Persons with Disabilities. Eugene, Or: Rehabilitation and Training Center in Mental Retardation, 1980.

An annotated bibliography of almost 300 references including books, articles, and reports. Subjects cover the varied types of advocacy including parental, legal, and self-advocacy, civil and legal rights, legislation and others. This text is only available on microfiche.

Brunk, Gary L. Supporting the Growth of the Self-Advocacy Movement. Lawrence, Kansas: Beach Center on Families and Disability, University of Kansas, 1991.

A study of the factors that helped the self-advocacy movement grow by looking at the history and leaders in the movement. Also provides suggestions for agencies and professionals that are involved with disabled advocates.

Chan, Adrian. Developmental Disabilities Advocacy Project. Milwaukee, Wis.: University of Milwaukee-Wisconsin, 1976.

A published study on the establishment of an advocacy program for the State of Wisconsin. Objectives of the study are defining and creating guidelines for the program and for implementation of the data gathered for the project. Examples of the survey questions and worksheets are provided.

Charlton, James I. Nothing About Us Without Us. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Written within a civil rights framework, the author discusses oppression of the disabled around the world. Violations of human rights and the disability rights movement are central to this work.

Crosson, Anita. Advocacy and the Developmentally Disabled. Eugene, Or: University of Oregon, 1977.

Gives a framework for understanding and the significance of advocacy for people with developmental disabilities. This is essentially a guide for professionals, parents, and people with developmental disabilities. Provides a definition of advocacy, federal legislation for advocacy, individuals rights, and an extensive annotated bibliography.

Crosson, Anita, Philip L. Browning and Robert E. Krambs. Advancing Your Citizenship. Eugene, Or: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation, 1979.

Discusses legislation regarding disability and consumer protection. Provides ten different case studies involving a variety of issues faced by the disabled. Issues are presented and a discussion on advocacy follows each case.

Fleischer, Doris Zames and Frieda Zames. The Disability Rights Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University, 2001.

Covering the history of the disability rights movement, the authors present a comprehensive look at the several movements within the community. Deinstitutionalization, independent living, legislation, disabled veterans, and physician-assisted suicide are some of the topics detailed.

Hayden, Mary F. The Self-Advocacy Movement: The Unacknowledged Civil Rights Movement. Washington, D.C.: National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, 2004.

Explores the self-advocacy movement through its history, definition, and aims. Discusses the roles of advisors and self-advocates as well as issues concerning institutionalization and freedom. A bibliography and other resources are provided.

Kinney, Lisa and Rodney P. Lang. Civil Rights of the Developmentally Disabled. Cheyenne, Wyo: Developmental Disabilities Protection and Advocacy System, 1986.

Investigates constitutional rights and laws in relation to the developmentally disabled. Civil rights in areas of employment, accessibility, institutionalization, and guardianship are dealt with as well as other rights issues. Trial cases and the issues of the Supreme Court are covered.

Longhurst, Nancy Anne. The Self-Advocacy Movement by People with Developmental Disabilities. Washington, D.C.: American Association on Mental Retardation, 1994.

A demographic study of self-advocacy groups in the United States. History, background, and a comprehensive survey of the advocacy groups are included. Data is broken down into several categories such as age of advocate, disability, gender, and others.

Longmore, Paul K. Why I Burned My Book and Other Essays on Disability. Philadelphia: Temple University, 2003.

A collection of written works by Longmore on the disability rights movement and other related topics. Historical background, the activism of the 1970’s and the contemporary movement are covered. The conceptualization of disability that came about through activism is central to this work.

McCraven, Carol J. An Advocacy Manual for Parents of Handicapped Children. Los Angeles: Institute for Child Advocacy, 1976.

A guide for parents explaining their disabled child’s rights, laws, benefits, and opportunities. Topics covered center on education but discussions on services, employment, and available resources are included.

Packard, E.P.W. The Prisoners’ Hidden Life or Insane Asylums Unveiled. Chicago: Published by the Author, 1868.

Written as an expose on insane asylums in the 19th century, the author advocates for sweeping changes in the institutional system. Institutionalized herself, the author offers a first hand account from inside the insane asylum.

Pelka, Fred. The ABC-CLIO Companion to the Disability Rights Movement. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1997.

In the format of an encyclopedia, the text includes people, places, language, legislation and important events relevant to the disability rights movement. A timeline of important events and a detailed bibliography are provided.

Rosenberg, Bernard. From Catastrophe to Help for the Retarded. New York: Rivercross Publishing, 1989.

A personal account of the author detailing his advocacy efforts on behalf of his daughter and other children with mental disabilities. Personal correspondence with important figures in the field of developmental disability, public officials and others are given.

Schneider, David M. The History of Public Welfare in New York State 1609-1866. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith, 1969.

Covers the history of public welfare in New York State from English colonialism to the Civil War. Important for the history of disability are discussions on poorhouses and institutions for the mentally and physically disabled in the state.

Schwartzenberg, Susan. Becoming Citizens: Family Life and the Politics of Disability. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Presented in a photo album format covering 13 families, this text looks at the “pioneering parent advocates” of the 1950s and 1960s. According to the author, these parents went against convention by refusing to institutionalize their children with developmental disabilities. A short history, newspaper clippings, and photographs are included.

Slater, Mary A. and Patrick J. Flanigan. Professional Advocacy. Madison, Wis.: Regional Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation, 1981.

Training information for professionals to help increase ability and utilize methods for advocacy on behalf of the developmentally disabled. Provides laws, worksheets, and definitions of specific disabilities. Examples of advocacy, developing advocacy plans, and professional responsibilities are main issues discussed.

Smith, J. David. In Search of Better Angels. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin, 2003.

Uses stories by well-known and some not so well-known individuals to portray challenges and potential for inclusiveness. Covers science, history, and literature in relation to disability issues.

Switzer, Jacqueline Vaughn. Disabled Rights: American Disability Policy and the Fight for Equality. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, 2003.

Switzer examines the climate of social, legal and political policy concerning disability in the last 50 years. She includes an address of stereotypes, segregation, and the terminology of “feeblemindedness.” She questions the effectiveness of the ADA, and looks at the status of the disabled community of today, and the advancement of the disability rights movement.

United Spinal Association. Taking Action: A Step by Step Guide to Becoming a Self Advocate & Making a Difference. Jackson Heights, NY: United Spinal Association, 2004.

A guide for becoming a self-advocate for the purpose of encouraging community changes for people with disabilities. The text offers resources, steps to becoming a self-advocate, do’s and don’ts of self-advocacy, first hand positive experiences, and a question and answer section. Also included are examples of using federal law such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Fair Housing Amendment Act, and others.

Ward, Linda. Innovations in Advocacy and Empowerment for People with Intellectual Disabilities. Lancashire, England: Lisieux Hall, 1998.

Discusses self-advocacy by individuals with intellectual disabilities in Great Britain. Collective action, accessibility, organization and other relevant issues are included.

Whitehead, Tanya Dianne and Joseph Hughey. Exploring Self-Advocacy from a Social Power Perspective. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2004.

Using social power as a conceptualization device, this study is useful as a training tool for self-advocates. Analysis of social roles, community organization and other social issues are given. An in depth survey is included as well the application of the survey.

Wilder, Esther. Voices from the Heartland: The Needs and Rights of Individuals with Disabilities. Brookline, Mass: Brookline Books, 2005.

The author gives a detailed description of the obstacles faced by those with disabilities and their experiences. A summary of support services, how they operate, and what has been effective is the main focus. Employment, healthcare, advocacy, and accessibility are discussed.

Williams, Paul. We Can Speak for Ourselves. London: Souvenir Press, 1982.

A case-study of self-advocacy at work in Omaha, Nebraska. Also gives a history of the movement in America and a guide to developing self-advocacy groups. Detailed information and a step by step process for organizing a group is given in the appendix.

Wolfensberger, Wolf. Citizen Advocacy for the Handicapped, Impaired, and Disadvantaged: An Overview. Washington, D.C.: President’s Committee on Mental Retardation, 1972.

A critique of the various services available at the time of publication. The author promotes the replacement of the service system for people with disabilities with an advocacy system. This could be accomplished with the establishment of a local and state system. Discusses the use of citizen advocacy and its advantages as well as other forms of advocacy such as group and crisis advocacy.

Cures for disABILITIES Bibliography

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Black, Edwin. War Against the Weak. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003.

Black traces the history of the eugenic practices in the United States and the connections to the movement during the Nazis Holocaust. The author discusses the involvement of philanthropists, government officials, and the United States Supreme Court in the eugenics movement.

Blandford, G. Fielding. Insanity and Its Treatment: Lectures on the Treatment, Medical, and Legal, of Insane Patients. London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1886.

A collection of lectures given by the author at the School of St. George’s Hospital. The lectures cover many aspects of insanity including symptoms, legal aspects, treatment, and related health issues.

El-Hai, Jack. The Lobotomist. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley, 2005.

A medical biography of Dr. Walter Freeman, the father of the transorbital lobotomy. The biography offers a history of the frontal lobotomy, tells the story of Freeman’s life divided into 3 sections, and givesperspective to opponents and proponents of the procedure.

Garber, Howard. The Milwaukee Project: Preventing Mental Retardation in Children at Risk. Washington, D.C.: American Association on Mental Retardation, 1988.

A study looking at cultural-familial mental retardation through environmental issues including poverty and family interaction. The research focused on intellectual stimulation of children from depressed communities. Format is an experiment summary with collected data presented in graphs and charts. A bibliography is provided.

King, Helen, ed. Health in Antiquity. New York: Routledge, 2005.

A collection of essays discussing health issues during the period of antiquity and in the modern era with a chapter titled ‘Curing Disability.”

Kluger, Jeffrey. Splendid Solution: Jonas Salk and the Conquest of Polio. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2004.

Presented in the format of a narrative following the struggles and eventual success of Jonas Salk’s discovery of a vaccine for poliomyelitis.

Oshinsky, David. Polio: An American Story. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

A chronological history of epidemics, research and the eventual discovery of an inoculation program for polio in the United States. Topics covered include politics, economics, fundraising (including the March of Dimes), and Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Valenstein, Elliot S. Great and Desperate Cures: The Rise and Decline of Psychosurgery and Other Radical Treatments for Mental illness. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

A history of the rise and fall of the use of the lobotomy, specifically in the United States. Discussions include how it became popular including how outside sources such as the media influenced the promotion of the procedure. Lobotomy pioneers Egas Monis and Walter Freeman are discussed at length.

disABILITY and Education Bibliography

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A Parent’s Guide to Special Education: Your Child’s Right to an Education in New York State. Albany: The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions, 1990.

Written for parents of disabled school children, this book was prepared in accordance to the IDEA of 1990. Clearly detailed is the special education process, rights of disabled children to a free public education, and the programs and services available. An historical timeline of education and children with disabilities, including the various laws, is also provided.

Abraham, Willard. The Mentally Retarded Child and Educational Films. Chicago: Coronet Films, 1966.

Looks at the use of educational films in the special education classroom specifically for the educable mentally retarded child. Describes the child and his or her needs, educational objectives, how they learn and other classroom issues. The educational films and how the children react to them is the main focus of this text.

Anderson, Robert Meredith, John G. Greer and Sara J. Odel. Individualizing Educational Materials for Special Children in the Mainstream. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1978.

Covers mainstreaming of developmentally disabled children in the United States public school system. Topics include environment, instructional materials, games, media, and examples of mainstreaming.

Baldwin, Victor L., Gerry Brodsky and H.D. Bud Fredericks. Isn’t it Time he Outgrew This? Or A Training Program for Parents of Retarded Children. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1973.

Written for parents and professionals to provide a training program that parents could utilize with their developmentally disabled child. The educational programs suggested include hygiene, math, reading, and self-help skills. Diagrams, pictures, and tables are provided.

Ball, Thomas S. Itard, Seguin, and Kephart: Sensory Education-A Learning Interpretation. Columbus, Oh: Merrill Publishing Company, 1971.

Discusses sensory education and other education methods through the work of Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard, Edward Seguin, and Newell Kephart. The approaches of Seguin and Itard are associated withy more contemporary methods such as Kephart’s educational techniques. A comprehensive bibliography is provided for further research.

Bauer, E. Charles. Institutions Are People: A Documentary of Life in a State School for the Mentally Retarded. New York: John Day Co., 1966.

A religious perspective of institutional care for the retarded, this book was written by a live in Chaplin of an institution. The book is in narrative form and presented as a first person account.

Baumeister, Alfred A. Mental Retardation; Appraisal, Education, and Rehabilitation. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co., 1967.

An edited collection of essays focusing on the “treatment” of people with mental retardation. The purpose of the collection is to give updated information to students and professionals in the field. Topics covered include vocational education, public school programs, training of institutional personnel and others. Prominent authors include Wolf Wolfensberger, Irv Bialer and many more.

Chalfant, James C. The Compliance Manual: A Guide to the Rules and Regulations of the Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act, Public Law 94-142: Questions, Answers, and Recommended Practices. New Rochelle , N.Y.: PEM Press, 1980.

A resource for teachers, administrators, Boards of Education and parents, this manual provides to its reader what is required by the federal government concerning Public Law 94-142. The author gives a concise summary of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act along with the several broad topics included in the Act. It is written in a question-answer format and provides copies of the administrative forms that had been used within PL-94-142.

Cheloff, Susan Pollack. Culture, Attitudes, and Disability Policy: The Effects of Cultural Values on the Implementation of National Educational Policy for Children with Disabilities. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Dissertation Services, 2000.

A study on the link of culture and the “status of individuals with disabilities” within a given culture. Two distinctive Jewish communities are looked at in this study. A focus on PL. 94-142, the Education of All Handicapped Children Act. Qualitative and quantitative research is included.

Costello, Cynthia G. Picture Books for an Inclusive Classroom. Torrance, CA: Fearon Teacher Aids, 2000.

Provides interactive lessons to be implemented with 20 books dealing with special needs individuals. Lessons include vocabulary, activity sheets and awareness discussions. Appendix has a sign language and Braille alphabet, a list of organizations that deal with disability and a bibliography of other picture books.

Cruickshank, William M. and G. Orville Johnson eds. Education of Exceptional Children and Youth. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1958.

An edited volume with contributions from 11 educators covering scientific methods for educating children of different abilities. Articles deal with disabilities from intellectual to specific physical impairments as well as emotional problems. Administration techniques are also discussed.

Deutsch, Henri. Developmental Disabilities: A Training Guide. Boston: CBI Pub. Co., 1982.

An overview of developmental disabilities for direct care personnel. This training manual offers help for the day-to-day contact with clients. Topics include habilitation programs, behavior modification, education, daily life skills, and staff burnout. Each chapter provides follow-up questions for discussion. Also included is a glossary of terms and a bibliography.

Dexter, Lewis Anthony. The Tyranny of Schooling. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1964.

A criticism of the school system and the systems result. Covers slow learning children and mental retardation. Morality and politics are a focus of this work.

Doll, Edgar A. Education and Training of the Feebleminded. Philadelphia: American Association for the Study of the Feebleminded, 1932.

Originally written in 1889, this is a report of the “current” status of the education of the feebleminded. Discusses developments up to 1889 including the use of scientific psychology.

Feingold, Abraham. Teaching Arithmetic to Slow Learners and Retarded. New York: The John Day Co., 1965.

A tool for teaching arithmetic using suggested scripts for the educator. The book offers and stresses a kinesthetic approach rather than learning through vision. Topics covered include numbers, words for numbers, symbols, addition and subtraction and others. Sample lesson plans are included.

Gable, Robert A. and Steven F. Warren eds. Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Mental Retardation. Baltimore: P. H. Brookes Pub. Co., 1993.

Divided into 2 sections, mild and severe mental retardation, the authors provide suggestions and techniques for teaching the developmentally disabled. Social interaction, verbal education, and cognitive behavior are some of the topics covered. A main focus of this edited work is instructional research.

Garton, Malinda Dean. Teaching the Educable Mentally Retarded. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1964.

Focusing only on issues relating to teaching “educable” children with mental retardation, this book offers suggestions, examples, and methods for teaching from early education to vocational. Written for teachers, parents, professionals and others who work with people with mental disabilities.

Gleason, John J. Special Education in Context. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

An anthropological and ethnographic study of residents of a state school for the mentally retarded. The research covers five years of observation, reviewing resident records, and historical research on education. Gleason observed the residents during the implementation of the Education of Handicapped Act 1975.

Gloeckle, Lawrence C. Amendments to Conform New York State Education Law to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Albany: State Education Department, 1999.

Discusses amendments to education law in New York that were initiated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The changes that were made to New York State education law are documented in this state publication. Each section pertaining to a specific change is followed by a question and answer segment for the amendments. Also included in the appendix is the exact record of the introduced amendments in the New York assembly regular session of 1999-2000.

Gottlieb, Jay. Educating Mentally Retarded Persons in the Mainstream. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1980.

Covers teaching of the disabled in the mainstream classroom and its classroom applications. Provides teachers thoughts on the issues involving mainstreaming and research on the subject of mainstreaming.

Hardy, Ira M. Schools for the Feebleminded-The State’s Best Insurance Policy. 1912.

An argument for the use of institutions for the feebleminded that states their use provides training and “humane treatment.” Advantages of the institution are discussed as well as the populations of the schools.

Hawley, Gloria H. How to Teach the Mentally Retarded. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1978.

A compliment to a religious curriculum for the developmentally disabled. Discusses special education Sunday school classes and the mentally retarded.

Henry, Nelson B. ed. The Education of Exceptional Children. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1950.

Presented in yearbook format, this book offers guidance for administrators, teachers, and parents. Discussions include prevention of disability, research, and education. Published by the National Society for the Study of Education.

Huefner, Dixie Snow. Burden of Proof Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Horsham, Pa.: LRP Publications, 1993.

Part of a series of special reports on the IDEA, this text examines who is responsible for the burden of proof in administrative hearings and court appearances, the parents or the education agencies. A brief legislative history is given as well as a discussion of the conflict and confusion among the various circuit courts.

Huefner, Dixie Snow. Getting Comfortable with Special Education Law: A Framework for Working with Children with Disabilities. Norwood, Mass.: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, 2000.

A comprehensive look at United States special education law explained in an understandable language. Important legislation such as Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are discussed among others. A glossary of legal terms, appendix, and an index of court cases are provided.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Law Report. Horsham, PA: LRP Publications, 1979-Present, biweekly.

This journal was formerly known as the Education for the Handicapped Law Report but changed its title in 1981. It provides updates to relevant statutes, regulations, summaries of court decisions and rulings at the state and federal level. This information comes from the courts themselves and the U.S. Department of Education’s various agencies. The journal also provides full text versions of the ADA, IDEA, and other applicable government documents.

Inskeep, Annie Dolman. Teaching Dull and Retarded Children. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1932.

Covers issues that came about due to the implementation of compulsory education regarding increased enrollment of “dull” and retarded children. Gives guidance for teachers unequipped to handle this segment of the schooling population. Other issues include socialization, methods for teaching academics and recreational activities. The author argues that compulsory education increases enrollment of children with disabilities.

Jones, Nancy Lee. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Background and Issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2004.

Jones provides an overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), originally enacted in 1975, which authorizes federal funding for the education of disabled children. She addresses issues of recent congressional concern including funding and the provision of FAPE (free appropriate public education) for children with disabilities who have been caught with weapons at school.

Kirk, Samuel A. Educating the Retarded Child. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.

Written with the implementation of separate special education classes in mind, Kirk addresses teachers, parents, students, and other professionals. Covers classification, development of special education programs and teaching methods. A comprehensive annotated bibliography includes articles, books, and school bulletins.

Kirk, Samuel A. Early Education of the Mentally Retarded. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1958.

A published account of a 5 year experiment on the effects of preschool education on children with mental retardation. The experiment demonstrated mental and social development of the children and improvement of functioning levels. Suggestions for improved learning and home environments are provided to advance educational progress.

Lane, Harlan L. The Wild Boy of Aveyron. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

A study of Jean-Marc-Gaspard-Itard and his work with Victor, the Wild Boy of Aveyron. Provides correspondence between Itard and Philippe Pinel on the education of Vistor and discusses Itard’s methods of training the feral boy. Also gives background material on other educators of the disabled such as Edward Seguin and Maria Montessori.

Lantzy, M. Louise. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: An Annotated Guide to its Literature and Resources, 1980-1991. Littleton, Colo.: F.B. Rothman & Co., 1992.

This resource guide was published in order to provide a comprehensive text of sources for the legal literature and advocacy organizations dealing with the IDEA. It was compiled for parents of disabled children, the legal community and groups concerned with education. The annotated bibliography is divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary sources.

MacDowall, Margaret. Simple Beginnings in the Training of Mentally Defective Children. London: Local Government Press Co., 1921.

Published in 1921, this text details historical methods of teaching those deemed an “idiot” or “imbecile”, terms historically used in medial circles. The author describes her own methods used in her school in areas of general instruction, vocational and industrial education, and motor skill development.

Mackie, Romaine P. Special Education in the United States: Statistics 1948-1966. New York: Teachers College Press, 1969.

A statistical look at special education covering the years 1948 to 1966. Trends, advances and enrollment are covered. Statistical tables include number of schools with special education classes, enrollment, number of special educators and other relevant statistics.

Mackie, Romaine. Teachers of Children who are Mentally Retarded. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957.

Published by the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The document discusses qualifications required for teacher of disabled children. Competency, education, and educational qualifications are also covered.

MacMillan, Donald L. Mental Retardation in School and Society. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1977.

Gives perspective to the special education field after the passage of Public Law 94-142, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Directed to prospective education students and professionals. Topics include causation, diagnosis and testing of mental retardation. A helpful bibliography is provided.

Martin, Reed. Educating Handicapped Children: The Legal Mandate. Champaign: Research Press Co., 1979.

Dealing with Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children, which is the precursor for the IDEA, the author examines procedures and attitudes that have to change with the new law. The book evaluates the changes that came with the new law and the challenges faced by schools, parents and the public.

Montessori, Maria. Dr. Montessori’s Own Handbook. Cambridge, Mass.: Robert Bentley Inc., 1966.

Montessori presents her methods for teaching by giving examples, diagrams, and full explanations of her teaching system. Maria Montessori is recognized as a leading figure in education.

Montessori, Maria. The Montessori Method. New York: Schocken Books, 1964.

Provides a detailed explanation of Montessori’s teaching method and a history of other methods. Topics include sensory and muscular exercises, reading, and writing in the classroom.

Montessori, Mario. The Human Tendencies and Montessori Education. Previously published under the title “Tendencies of Man.” Amsterdam: Association Montessori Internationale, 1966.

An edited lecture presented by Mario M. Montessori discussing education and development of children.

Newhouse, Wade J. Law and the Education of Handicapped Children in New York State. Buffalo, NY: State and Local Government Law Program, Faculty of Law and Jurisprudence, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1977.

This is a manuscript of a chapter that is included in the book Law and Public Education in New York State. It details New York law as it applies to educating disabled students in 1977. An appendix is provided that summarizes state and federal legislation pertaining to education of disabled children.

New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled. Special Education: Parents Perspective. Albany: New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled, 1990.

A report from the Commission’s study on the problems faced by children with disabilities and their parents obtaining a free appropriate public education in New York State. A survey of parents concentrates on services, satisfaction and resolving dispute in the education system.

Norlin, John W. NCLB and IDEA ’04: A Side by Side Analysis. Horsham, Pennsylvania: LRP Publications, 2005.

Concerned with similarities and parallels in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Issues discussed are qualifications for teachers and professionals, professional development, parental involvement, private schools and other relevant topics. Appendices give side-by-side analysis of the IDEA and NCLB and relevant sections of each piece of legislation.

Perry, Natalie. Teaching the Mentally Retarded Child. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.

Author provides several school programs for the mentally retarded child. Integrated into these programs are the home and the community. Appendix offers examples of games, schedules for learning, children’s books, and school party’s.

Quicke, John. Disability in Modern Children’s Fiction. Cambridge: Brookline Books, 1985.

Concerned with integrating disability topics into classroom curriculums, the author examines children’s novels that deal with one or more disabled characters. Quicke believes that students can better relate to the disabled population, especially school children, by reading themselves into the social, emotional and even historical world created by the author.

Seguin, Edward. Idiocy and its Treatment by the Physiological Method. New York: A. M. Kelly, 1866, 1971.

Sequin discusses the medical, educational, and moral treatment of idiocy. Considerable attention is given to institutions for idiotic children. Idiocy and its Treatment by the Physiological Method was originally published in 1866.

Spitz, Herman H. The Raising of Intelligence: A Selected History of Attempts to Raise Retarded Intelligence. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1986.

A history of the attempts to raise intelligence levels of the mentally retarded. Education, IQ testing, and the Milwaukee Project are covered. A comprehensive bibliography is provided.

United States. Accountability and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.

A published government document of a hearing on the accountability of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. The committee is concerned with accountability, coordination and quality of education for disabled children and why there is failure for full compliance. Numerous general recommendations and recommendations for transition are given to the committee.

United States. Overidentification Issues within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the Need for Reform. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.

This is a published version of a hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce. The issues discussed deal with the overidentification of minorities for placement in special education classes. It is proposed in the hearing that better training, evaluation and intervention be instituted in the general educational setting to correct the problems.

University of the State of New York Board of Regents. Final Approved New York State Plan for Education of Students with Disabilities: 1993-1995. Albany: University of the State of New York, State Education Dept., Office for Special Education Services, 1994.

This document was published to demonstrate New York’s compliance with the federal legislation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. It details how the Education Department of the state is consistent with the IDEA and provides assurances of statues, regulations, policies and procedures. Issues covered in the document are learning goals for all children, identification of students with disabilities, right to education statement, procedures, and responsibilities of the state. Several useful charts are provided that show actual and forecasted spending, personnel qualifications and positions.

Vanuxem, Mary. Education of a Feeble-Minded Women. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1925.

Published in 1925, this short paper provides brief historical background on the care and training of mental defectives and education. Intelligence testing, personality, academics, moral and industrial education are detailed as well.

Wallin, J.E. Wallace. The Education of Handicapped Children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1924.

Wallin gives a historical summary of education for the disabled and then a more contemporary review of public school education. The relation of feeble-mindedness to crime, degeneracy and procreation are detailed as well. Several illustrations are provided detailing specific disabilities. Appendix gives several charts on diagnosis, intelligence levels and employment.

Wallin, J.E. Wallace. Education of Mentally Handicapped Children. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955.

Focusing on mental disabilities, Wallin discusses the difficulties in public schools and private institutions. Outlines objectives, curriculum, and qualifications for special education teachers. Geared towards teachers, administrators, and students interested in careers in special education.

Wenkart, Ronald D. Appropriate Education for Students with Disabilities: How Courts Determine Compliance with IDEA. Horsham, PA: LRP Publications, 2000.

According to the author, FAPE (a free appropriate public education), while defined in statute has a history of frequent litigation; it is difficult to prove whether an individual has or has not received such an education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In this special report, Wenkart discusses the terms of an “appropriate” education for individuals with disabilities under IDEA as well as how it can be determined in court. Included is a survey and discussion of relevant case law on the issue of FAPE.

Williams, Harold M. and John E. W. Wallin. Education of the Severely Retarded Child: A Bibliographical Review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Education, 1959.

A bibliographical review of texts covering the schooling of the severely retarded. Each bibliographical entry is annotated and listed in alphabetical order by author’s last name.

Zelin, Gerald M. The Constitutional Foundations of Special Education Law. Horsham, PA: LRP Publications, 1993.

A special report on the IDEA, the author contends that the special education legislation pushes the boundaries of federal government authority. Examined in the report is the question of whether the constitution guarantees the right to special education. The conclusion is that the expensive and controversial provisions of the IDEA are not guaranteed by the constitution.

Eugenics Bibliography

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Ableson, Harold H. The Improvement of Intelligence Testing. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1927.

Looks at the use of intelligence testing in education and the need for testing improvement. The author argues for simplified data retrieval from the psychological testing and the need or use of an objective scientific method. Improvement of the data and its validity is discussed.

Agar, Nicholas. Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement. Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub., 2005.

Defends eugenics as it pertains to human enhancement as well as protection and enhancement of reproductive freedom. The author states that eugenics may be unpopular but not entirely wrong. Topics include human enhancement, morality, and the elimination of social issues such as racism.

American Eugenics Society. A Eugenics Program for the United States. New Haven, Conn.: The Society, 1935.

A short booklet that presents the need for a eugenics program in the United States. Aims and applications of the program as well as social morality relating to social environment are discussed.

Bajema, Carl Jay. Eugenics: Then and Now. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1976.

An edited collection of essays addressing historical trends in eugenic thought, the authors look at Francis Galton through early genetic research. Birth control, sterilization, population control, and eliminating “feeble-mindedness” through a eugenics program are also discussed.

Black, Edwin. War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003.

Black traces the history of the eugenic practices in the United States and the connections to the movement during the Nazis Holocaust. The author discusses the involvement of philanthropists, government officials, and the United States Supreme Court in the eugenics movement.

Blacker, C. P. Eugenics: Galton and After. London: Duckworth, 1952.

An expansion of a lecture given to the Eugenics Society in 1945, this text discusses the views of Sir Francis Galton on eugenics divided into 2 parts. The first part focuses on Galton’s scientific activities, religious views, and eugenics thoughts. The second looks at the development of eugenics since Galton’s death and future advancement of the theory.

Bruinius, Harry. Better for All the World: The Secret History of Forced Sterilization and America’s Quest for Racial Purity. New York: Knopf, 2006.

An historical account of the eugenics movement in America and its leading advocates. Attention is given to the use of legalized involuntary sterilization specifically looking at the Supreme Court decision in Buck v. Bell.

Buchanan, Allen E. From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

A comprehensive look at genetics with discussions on a variety of pertinent issues regarding ethics, eugenics, justice and reproduction. A major focus is on new genetic knowledge and research in conjunction with defined challenges.

Chase, Allan. The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism. New York: Knopf, 1977.

Covers the ideas and reasoning of scientific racism and its related disciplines. Intelligence, eugenics, and genetics are discussed.

Chesterton, G. K. , edited by Michael W. Perry. Eugenics and Other Evils. Seattle: Inkling Books, 2000.

A Collection of Chesterton’s articles focusing on his opposition to the “science” of eugenics. The edited collection also presents articles written by advocates and attacks on Chesterton by the scientific community supporting eugenics.

Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. Sir Francis Galton and the Study of Heredity in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Garland, 1985.

Considered the father of eugenics, this work details Sir Francis Galton’s endeavors in heredity and genetics. A substantial bibliography is provided. This is the author’s dissertation for a Doctor of Philosophy.

Darwin, Leonard. The Need for Eugenic Reform. New York: Garland, 1984, 1926.

Written for the educated man or woman who is not scientifically trained, to promote the theory of eugenics. This is a comprehensive text that covers all aspects related to eugenic theory of the 1920s. Topics cover historical background, people with disabilities, race, the environment, and many others.

Dolan, Brian. Malthus, Medicine, and Morality: Malthusianism after 1798. Atlanta: Rodopi, 2000.

An edited collection of essays discussing various topics on Thomas Robert Malthus and his theories on population. Essays cover Malthus himself, general influence of his theories, and the creation of a world view in his works.

Dorey, Annette K. Vance. Better Baby Contests: The Scientific Quests for Perfect Childhood Health in the Early Twentieth Century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, 1999.

Details the short history of “scientific” baby judging in the early twentieth century. Better Baby contests were popular from 1913-1915 throughout the United States. The author describes the science behind the search for the perfect baby and provides the charts and scorecards used for judging and a long list of winners.

Dowbiggin, Ian R. Keeping America Sane: Psychiatry and Eugenics in the United States and Canada, 1880-1940. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1997.

A look at the field of psychiatry in North America its initial embrace of eugenics and eventual rejection of those ideas. There is a discussion on the history of psychiatry, eugenics, and the influence on eugenics on United States immigration policy.

Faigman, David L. Laboratory of Justice: The Supreme Court’s 200-year Struggle to Integrate Science and the Law. New York: Times Books, 2004.

A discussion on science and constitutional law. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and the case Buck v. Bell is included as well as a discussions on races, eugenics, and sterilization. An interesting addition is the viewpoint of Justice Holmes of the law in relation to science.

Forrest, Derek William. Francis Galton: The Life and Work of a Victorian Genius. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1974.

A biography of Francis Galton and a history of eugenics. The author discusses Galton’s formulation of eugenics and his continuing connections to the idea.

Franks, Angela. Margaret Sanger’s Eugenic Legacy: The Control of Female Fertility. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2005.

A history of Margaret Sanger’s work in the field of birth and population control. Eugenics is a central focus in this work as the author argues that Sanger was a dedicated eugenicist. The appendix provides a timeline relating to Planned Parenthood and Margaret Sanger as well as a categorized bibliography of sources.

Gallagher, Nancy L. Breeding Better Vermonters: The Eugenics Project in the Green Mountain State. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1999.

A local study of the Eugenics Survey of Vermont conducted by Harry Perkins, department chair of the University of Vermont’s zoology department. Gallagher places this local history of eugenics and Perkins into the national movement of the first three decades of the twentieth century. An extensive bibliography and footnotes are provided.

Galton, Francis. Essays in Eugenics. New York: Garland, 1985, 1909.

A collection of Galton’s essays presented to show progress on the issue of eugenics and to put forth his views, aims, and methods for its use. Topics discussed include human improvement, marriage restrictions, and religion among other relevant topics on eugenics.

Galton, Francis. Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1928.

A collection of memoirs, lectures, and other published materials by the author. The purpose of this work is to discuss hereditary differences based on race and different families and how to supplant deficient “human stock” with “better strains.” Contents include discussions on criminality and the insane, population, and intelligence differences among other topics. Francis Galton is known for coining the term eugenics and this text is a promotion of that theory.

Gillham, Nicholas W. A life of Sir Francis Galton: From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

A biography of Sir Francis Galton that follows his endeavors in exploration, geography, human heredity, and many more of his contributions to the sciences. A central focus is Galton’s move into the field of heredity and his development of eugenics.

Glass, D.V. Introduction to Malthus. London: Watts, 1953.

The republished pamphlets of Thomas Robert Malthus and a discussion of the Malthusian theory of population. Gives a good background of the theory and can help to link the theory to latter theories on eugenics. A bibliography covers topics on population, sexual abstinence, and emigration.

Gosney, E.S. and Paul Popenoe. Sterilization for Human Betterment. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1929.

A study of over 6,000 eugenical sterilizations performed in California from 1909 to 1929. The authors argue that there have been economic and social benefits for the sterilizations and very few negative consequences. Appendix gives documentation, laws supporting the procedure and articles on its advantages.

Haller, Mark H. Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1984.

A discussion of the social implications of Eugenics, the author looks at the origins, peak of the movement, and its eventual decline. The eventual post-1930 revival of hereditary genetic research is also explored. A bibliographical essay and comprehensive footnotes are provided.

Harrison, Maureen and Steven Gilbert. Landmark Decisions of the United States Supreme Court III. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Excellent Book, 1992.

A collection of majority opinions of the United States Supreme Court by the justice chosen to speak for the Court. Relevant to disability history is the opinion given by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in Buck v. Bell (1927) on the issues of forced sterilization of “mental defectives.”

Hasian, Marouf Arif. The Rhetoric of Eugenics in Anglo-American Thought. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

A history of the development of eugenics and the rhetoric of eugenics in Anglo-American thought and culture. The text discusses how the language and ideas of eugenics pervades democratic discourse. Discussions of feeblemindedness and race are included.

Huntington, Ellsworth. Tomorrow’s Children: The Goal of Eugenics. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1935.

Discusses the principles of eugenics and how it can be applied to social problems. Marriage, heredity, negative and positive eugenics are covered.

International Eugenics Congress. “A Decade of Progress in Eugenics; Scientific Papers of the Third International Congress of Eugenics, Held at American Museum of Natural History, New York, August 21-23, 1932.” Contributors: Harry Laughlin and Henry Farnam Perkins, Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1934.

Provides the papers and lectures given at the Third International Congress of Eugenics. Several charts and images are incorporated in this work including the exhibits for the congress. Themes of the congress covered mental development, marriage, and race.

Kevles, Daniel J. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. New York: Knopf, 1985.

An historical look at eugenics after Francis Galton through the 1980s. Discusses the application of eugenics on “inferior” races, in the Nazis regime in Germany, reproduction and contemporary research on human genetics. Genetic research for diagnosis and prevention of disease and the impact of eugenics on this research is also explored.

Kline, Wendy. Building a Better Race: Gender, Sexuality, and Eugenics from the Turn of the Century to the Baby Boom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

A history of the eugenics movement and sterilization placed in context with gender, the female, and sexuality. Positive and negative eugenics are discussed.

Kuhl, Stefan. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

A study on eugenics in America and Germany, the author connects the racial hygiene movement of American eugenicists to Nazi Germany. The international eugenic movement, its popularity, and eventual downfall after application in Nazis Germany are discussed. A full bibliography with sources from the United States and Germany is provided.

Landman, Jacob Henry. Human Sterilization: The History of the Sexual Sterilization Movement. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1932.

Advocates for the need for more scientific research and data before human sterilization can be defended and treated as an ethical procedure. The author suggests that segregation of specific “unwanted” populations could have the same result as sterilization. Topics include eugenics and social legislation, the courts, biology of human sterilization, current procedures, and social policy.

Larson, Edward J. Sex, Race, and Science: Eugenics in the Deep South. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

A legislative history of eugenics in the Deep South, the author looks at the slowness and reasons eugenic principles made headway into this region of the United States. He also discusses why these ideas remained in the Deep South even after there repudiation in the rest of the nation. Includes an analysis of each state in the region, race and eugenics, and the “genetically defective” and institutionalized.

Laughlin, Harry H. Eugenical Sterilization. New Haven, Conn.: The American Eugenics Society, 1926.

Provides a historical and legal review of eugenical sterilization up to 1926. H. H. Laughlin was one of the leading advocates of a eugenics program in the United States. Gives the model for sterilization laws, lists laws chronologically, and details statistics from states and institutions that performed eugenic operations.

Laughlin, Harry H. “The Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization; History and Analysis of Litigation Under the Virginia Sterilization Statute, Which led to a Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States Upholding the Statute.” Chicago: Fred J. Ringley Company, 1930.

A review and analysis of the Virginia Sterilization Statue passed in 1924 and the legal journey of the legislation through the court system. Extensive attention is given to the Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell and the majority opinion of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes that upheld the use of compulsory sterilization. An in-depth examination of Carrie Buck and witness testimony is provided as well as a discussion of the legal status of eugenical sterilization in 1930. Suggestions for model sterilization laws are also offered.

Lynn, Richard. Eugenics: A Reassessment. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.

Attempts to portray eugenics as a correct scientific theory that should not have been abandoned. The author promotes eugenics, discusses the consequences of abandoning the science, and is trying to carry on for Francis Galton.

Malthus, Thomas Robert, ed. by Philip Appleman. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Originally published in 1798. New York: Norton, 1976.

The influential theory of Thomas Robert Malthus. Known as the Principle of Population, this is the essay in entirety. Malthus’ theory was later applied to theories on eugenics.

Maranto, Gina. Quest for Perfection: The Drive to Breed Better Human Beings. New York: Scribner, 1996.

Traces the history of controlling the human population through the regulation of birth outcomes. This discussion of enhancing humans includes eugenics, biological engineering, and new reproductive technology.

Mehler, Barry Alan. “A History of the American Eugenics Society, 1921-1940.” Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Illinois, 1988.

A dissertation focusing on the history of the American Eugenics society, the author disputes prior claims that eugenics in America changed after 1930. Instead, he argues that there was continuity within the movement. Foreign influence and a comparison of American and Nazi sterilization programs are detailed. An appendix includes the biographies of 170 leaders of the American Eugenic Society.

Miller, Marvin D. Terminating the Socially Inadequate: The American Eugenicists and the German Race Hygienists, California to Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island to Germany. Commack, NY: Malamud-Rose, 1996.

A study of the American eugenics program, its well known advocates, and the connections to the Nazi racial hygiene program. Miller brings socio-economic issues into his discussion as well as new sources including letters from the adult children of German racial hygienists.

Milunsky, Aubrey and George J. Annas eds. Genetics and the Law. New York: Plenum Press, 1976.

An edited collection of papers discussing genetic research and the law. Issues covered include genetics, family law, eugenics, and ethics in relation to the law. Each chapter provides references and a bibliography.

Ordover, Nancy. American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Covers the history of eugenics through the twentieth century covering issues such as nativism, homosexuality, and race. Immigration and the search for the gay gene are also discussed. Connections of past eugenic thoughts are made to present efforts of scientific research and published findings.

Osborn, Frederick Henry. Preface to Eugenics. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940.

Presents the issues of eugenics in relation to the environment. Gives solutions to problems of overpopulation and the preservation of resources. The philosophy and psychology of eugenics is detailed extensively.

Paul, Diane B. Controlling Human Heredity, 1865 to the Present. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995.

A history of heredity, eugenics, and genetics from 1865 to the present. Discussions include evolution, disability, race, and reproduction.

Perea, Juan F. Immigrants Out!: The New Nativism and the Anti-Immigrant Impulse in the United States. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Main focus is nativism and immigration in the United States placed in a historical and contemporary context. Eugenics is placed into the concepts of nativism and its relation to immigration. Immigration policy dating to the 1920’s had a eugenics appeal to national leaders including President Calvin Coolidge.

Pernick, Martin S. The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of “Defective” Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures since 1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Looks at eugenics through the medium of motion pictures created to relate public health issues to the larger public. Much of the focus is on Dr. Harry J. Haiselden who withheld treatment from disabled newborn babies and the media surrounding his actions. The bibliography is extensive and includes movies that dealt with eugenics.

Pickens, Donald K. Eugenics and the Progressives. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1968.

Gives background and reasoning behind the eugenic movement. Accounts are provided on Sir Francis Galton, Margaret Sanger, and the progressives among other topics.

Pintner, Rudolf. Intelligence Testing: Methods and Results. New York: H. Holt, 1923.

Published in 1923, this book looks at the history of intelligence testing, methods and reasons for its use. The author provides a discussion on specific segments of the population and examples of intelligence test questions.

Pozzetta, George E. Nativism, Discrimination, and Images of Immigrants. New York: Garland, 1991.

Part of a 20 volume history on immigration in the United States. Relevant to disability history are essays on eugenics and its application to immigration. The Immigration Act of 1924, covered in volume 15, is directly related to eugenics.

Rafter, Nicole Hahn. White Trash: The Eugenic Family Studies, 1877-1919. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1988.

A study of selected heredity studies from the late 19th century into the 20th century. Many are well-known studies including Robert Dugdales’s The Jukes and Henry H. Goddard’s The Kallikak Family. Through these texts and others, the author tries to determine how scientific knowledge is constructed.

Regal, Brian. Henry Fairfield Osborn: Race, and the Search for the Origins of Man. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

A detailed study of Henry Fairfield Osborn and how he developed his theory of evolution. Eugenics and racism are taken into account but disability is not directly mentioned. A comprehensive bibliography is provided.

Reilly, Philip. The Surgical Solution: A History of Involuntary Sterilization in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

This text is an analytical history of involuntary sterilization in the United States from 1907 through the 1960s. The author looks at those considered “degenerate” and institutionalized persons by examining the intellectual origins of eugenics to the present period. There is a focus on the medical and legal aspects of involuntary sterilization.

Richardson, Angelique. Love and Eugenics in the Late Nineteenth Century: Rational Reproduction and the New Woman. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Looks at the place of 19th century women fiction writers in relation to the construction of eugenic ideas. A main focus is the connection between 19th century feminism and eugenic thought. Gender, reproduction and women’s roles in the popularization of eugenics in late Victorian Britain are also covered.

Robitscher, Jonas B., ed. Eugenic Sterilization. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1973.

Contributes to the study of eugenic topics on politics, moral considerations, and genetics. A brief history of eugenics is provided including a discussion of state laws on sterilization.

Rosen, Christine. Preaching Eugenics: Religious Leaders and the American Eugenics Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Covers the embracing of eugenics by religious leaders in the United States. The author discusses the changing aspects of religion and the division between modernists and fundamentalists. Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant faiths and their support for eugenics are included.

Sanger, Margaret. The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

Selected letters, articles and correspondence from the mother of the birth control movement. Some discussion on eugenic sterilization and the need not to confuse it with birth control.

Schiller, F.C.S. Social Decay and Eugenical Reform. New York: Garland, 1984, 1932.

The aim of this book is to promote and launch a practicable eugenics program in England. Eugenic reform is advocated at all levels of society to reverse purported social decay. This reform, according to the author is needed in the House of Lords, industry, and within democracy itself to convert society to a program of eugenics.

Searle, G. R. Eugenics and Politics in Britain, 1900-1914. Leyden: Noordhoff International Pub., 1976.

Covers the place of eugenics in British politics before 1914. The agenda of eugenicists in Great Britain during this period is discussed. According to the author, British eugenicists wanted to legislate a eugenic policy but distrust of Parliamentary politics dissuaded this cause. There is more focus on class distinctions than disability but this work is relevant to the whole of eugenics history.

Selden, Steven. Inheriting Shame: The Story of Eugenics and Racism in America. New York: Teachers College Press, 1999.

A look at the relationship between eugenics and educational policies of America during the early 20th century. Topics covered include the organization of American eugenics, its popularization, an exploration of eugenics in early biology textbooks, and resistance to American eugenics.

Siegel, Morris. Constructive Eugenics and Rational Marriage. Toronto: McCelland & Stewart, 1934.

Written as a defense of eugenics in 1889, the author discusses heredity, evolution and constructive uses for eugenics.

Smith, J. David. The Eugenic Assault on America: Scenes in Red, White, and Black. Fairfax, Va.: George Mason University Press, 1993.

An account of the history of eugenics related to racism in the United States covering topics of genocide, sterilization, and the application of eugenics in America.

Smith, John David. Minds Made Feeble: The Myth and Legacy of the Kallikaks. Rockville, Md.: Aspen Systems Corp., 1985.

An in-depth study of Henry Herbert Goddard’s book, The Kallikak Family and its deficiencies. Smith explains the invention of Goddard’s case-study family, weak research techniques and the importance of his work.

Smith, David J. and K. Ray Nelson. The Sterilization of Carrie Buck. Far Hills, NJ: New Horizon Press, 1989.

An account of Carrie Buck’s institutionalization and eventual forced sterilization. Central to this text is the Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell that legalized compulsory sterilization.

Stern, Alexander. Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

This work attempts to place eugenics in a west coast centric light with a focus on California. The author challenges prevailing historical understanding of eugenics in America, especially the concentration on the east coast and the abandonment of the theory after World War II. Topics covered include race betterment or better breeding, immigration, heredity, and family.

Stone, Dan. Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian and Interwar Britain. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2002.

A study of the history of ideas in relation to fascism with a focus on Friedrich Nietzsche and the eugenics movement. A question proposed by the author concerns the appeal of eugenics to the political left in Britain.

Terman, Lewis M. The Measurement of Intelligence. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1916.

Terman is known for creating the Stanford-Binet intelligence test based on Alfred Binet’s original test. This text discusses the use of I.Q. testing on disabled children and children considered to have superior intelligence. A guide and example questions as well as a description of the original test are provided.

Vernon, Philip Ewart. Intelligence Testing, 1928-1978: What Next?. Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education, 1979.

A published lecture on intelligence testing and its significant changes over a period of 50 years. Charts and statistics for comparison are provided as well as a short bibliography.

Weikart, Richard. From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

A focus on Germany discussing ethics, eugenics and race with a historical background. The devaluation of people with disabilities as unproductive according to Adolph Hitler and others is also covered.

Woodside, Moya. Sterilization in North Carolina: A Sociological and Psychological Study. Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1950.

A case-study of the eugenic sterilization program in North Carolina. The text provides laws, copies of relevant forms used in the program, detailed statistics, and specific cases of sterilization. While it is focused on a single state, other states are briefly covered.

Zenderland, Leila. Measuring Minds: Henry Herbert Goddard and the Origins of American Intelligence Testing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Zenderland gives an historical account of American intelligence testing through a biography of Henry Herbert Goddard. Within this format the author discusses education, institutionalization, and psychology. A chapter is devoted to Goddard’s The Kallikak Family.

disABILITY and the Law Bibliography

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Abrams, Robert. Guardianship Practice in New York State. Albany: New York State Bar Association, 1997.

This two-volume text presents a guide for lawyers who deal with guardianship litigation. Several cases and their outcomes are included as well as the proper procedures for filing legal claims. The laws dealing with guardianship in New York State are incorporated in the text along with brief summaries. This work is directed wholly to the legal community.

American Indian Disability Legislation Project: Findings of a National Survey of Tribal Governments. Missoula, Mont.: Rural Institute on Disabilities, University of Montana, 1995.

A study attempting to determine methods for adopting disability legislation, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, among American Indian tribes while still respecting tribal sovereignty and culture. The study relies on a survey of native tribes that focuses on knowledge of disability legislation and response for the American tribes.

Americans with Disabilities Act: An Annotated Bibliography of Resources. Washington D.C.: AARP, 1995.

This annotated bibliography offers several different sources for detailed information and compliance to the ADA. Contact information for purchase, including price, or further information is given on the following topics: sources of the ADA law, software, manuals, and newsletters on dealing specifically with the ADA, technical assistance projects, government agencies and disability organizations, national resources on disability and technology as well as checklists and surveys.

The Americans with Disabilities Act: Questions and Answers. Washington, D.C.: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1992.

Published by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, this short pamphlet provides a question and answer format on issues such as employment, state and local governments and public accommodations in relation to the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990. Includes a bibliography and resource contact information.

Anderer, Stephen J., Nancy A. Coleman, Elissa C. Lichtenstein, and John W. Parry, eds. Determining Competency in Guardianship Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: Division for Public Services, American Bar Association, 1990.

The authors present a new model for determining competency in guardianship cases. Dealing specifically with disability, the authors believe there is a need for more objectivity in order to apply standards more reasonably and consistently. As the statues in individual states now stand, they are vague and subjective.

Apolloni, Tony and Thomas P. Cooke. A New Look at Guardianship: Protective Services that Support Personalized Living. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes, 1984.

This book contains an edited collection of articles, and was written to explain new options for improving stability, security, and continuity in guardianship services. It also offers options other than guardianships and promotes self-reliance and volunteerism.

Battin, Margaret P., Rosamond Rhodes and Anita Silvers eds. Physician-Assisted Suicide: Expanding the Debate. New York: Routledge, 1998.

A collection of cross-disciplinary essays that have taken the discussion of physician-assisted suicide where the Supreme Court had left it after the decisions of Washington v. Glucksburg and Vacco v. Quill. The essays are broken down into five sections: conceptual issues, those at risk, considering the practice of medicine, legalization, and religious perspectives.

Blanck, Peter David. Disability, Civil Rights Law, and Policy. St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West, 2004.

A comprehensive look at disability rights law and policy in the United States with a brief look at international law. Civil rights law in relation to the Americans with Disabilities Act is discussed as well as discrimination, the philosophy of the ADA and its effectiveness, and the definition of disability under the ADA among many others. This text was written for law professionals, students, and advocates.

Blanck, Peter David. Employment, Disability, and the Americans with Disabilities Act: Issues in Law, Public Policy, and Research. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2000.

This book examines issues pertinent to employment, disability, and the ADA. It analyzes the future of multidisciplinary study concerning employment, disability, and the ADA.

Braddock, David L. Federal Policy Toward Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. Baltimore: Brookes, 1987.

A comprehensive look at the history of federal policy relating to people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Funding, goals, and accomplishments of federal programs are explored from 1935 to 1985.

Breslin, Mary Lou and Silvia Yee. Disability Rights Law and Policy: International and National Perspectives. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2002.

An edited collection of essays prepared and published by Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund. Topics include history, theory, disability rights advocates, and law reform. A survey of anti-discrimination law, its uses and operations is provided. Tables on court cases and international law are also supplied.

Browning, Philip L., ed. Rehabilitation and the Retarded Offender. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1976.

A collection of edited articles that present issues faced by the developmentally disabled offender in the justice system. The defender is defined, rehabilitation alternatives are given as well as potential solutions to the growing problem. Included is an annotated bibliography for further research.

Chalfant, James C. The Compliance Manual: A Guide to the Rules and Regulations of the Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act, Public Law 94-142: Questions, Answers, and Recommended Practices. New Rochelle , N.Y.: PEM Press, 1980.

A resource for teachers, administrators, Boards of Education and parents, this manual provides to its reader what is required by the federal government concerning Public Law 94-142. The author gives a concise summary of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act along with the several broad topics included in the Act. It is written in a question-answer format and provides copies of the administrative forms that had been used within PL-94-142.

Colker, Ruth. The Disability Pendulum. The First Decade of the Americans with Disabilities Act. New York: New York University Press, 2005.

Colker provides an analysis of the effectiveness of the ADA, as she questions why it may have fallen short of its potential to induce positive change for the disabled community. She provides an introduction to the ADA, including an outline of its provisions and an overview of the history underlying its enactment.

Colker, Ruth. The Law of Disability Discrimination. Cincinnati, Oh: Cincinnati Anderson Publishing Co., 1995.

Written to provide students with an in-depth look at the Americans with Disabilities Act as it relates to discrimination of people with disabilities. Discrimination in employment, education, housing and other issues are covered. Reference to other pieces of federal legislation, relevant cases, and hypothetical issues are included.

Ehrenreich, Rosa and Jamie Fellner. Beyond Reason: The Death Penalty and Offenders with Mental Retardation. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2001.

A discussion of mental retardation and the legal standards of capital punishment. Provides recommendations for criminal justice officials such as police officers and prosecutors when dealing with offenders with developmental disabilities. The authors suggest that capital punishment should be abolished as a whole and at the very least suspended for offenders with developmental disabilities. Sixteen case studies of defendants with disabilities and their stories are provided.

Engel, David M. and Frank W. Munger. Rights of Inclusion: Law and Identity in the Life Stories of Americans with Disabilities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

A collection of life story narratives with discussions on identity, rights, gender and the Americans with Disabilities Act. This is an interesting look at disability and the law along with gender and disability rights.

Foley, Kathleen and Herbert Hendin eds. The Case Against Assisted Suicide: For the Right to End-of-Life Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 2002.

An edited collection of essays opposing the use of physician assisted suicide. The authors discuss vulnerable populations such as people with depression or debilitating disabilities. Examples of the procedures use and reasons why physician assisted suicide should not be legalized are discussed.

Francis, Leslie Pickering and Anita Silvers, eds. Americans with Disabilities: Exploring Implications of the Law for Individuals and Institutions. New York: Routledge, 2000.

An edited collection of essays exploring the social model of disability in conjunction with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Issues discussed include employment, healthcare, legal matters, and the definition of disability.

Gloeckle, Lawrence C. Amendments to Conform New York State Education Law to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Albany: State Education Department, 1999.

The amendments to education law in New York were initiated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The changes that were made to New York State education law are documented in this state publication.

Gostin, Larry O. and Henry Beyer. Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act: Rights and Responsibilities of all Americans. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes Pub. Co., 1993.

Collection of articles written by well-known disability activists and authors such as Justin Dart, Jr., I. King Jordan and Judith E. Heumann. Essays cover a variety of issues related to the ADA and its implementation. Key provisions of the legislation are summarized and the amended Act is provided in full text.

Hawkins, Gail N. Physician-assisted Suicide. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

An edited collection of essays providing arguments for and against assisted suicide. Debates include ethics, moral justification, and the potential for patient abuse. Important to the discussion is if the United States Constitution provides access to assisted suicide as an unalienable right.

Herr, Stanley S. Advocacy under the Developmental Disabilities Act: a Discussion Paper on Implications of Section 113, PL 94 – 103. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Human Development, Developmental Disabilities Office, 1976.

In this paper, the need and benefits of advocacy, or agencies to secure the benefits of citizenship for the developmentally disabled is addressed. Comprehensively outlined are legislative history, existing advocacy mechanisms, and policy considerations and recapitulation.

Herr, Stanley S. Rights and Advocacy for Retarded People. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1983.

An examination of rights and legal issues effecting people with mental retardation in America. The history of segregation and legal means for improving medical services and education are discussed. The author promotes self-advocacy as a means to push for improvements for social integration.

Hilliard, Bryan. The U.S. Supreme Court and Medical Ethics: From Contraception to Managed Health Care. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House, 2004.

The author looks at the law and medical ethics through methods of interpretation of the United States Constitution, specifically among Supreme Court Justices. Important to the study of disability in this work are discussions on treatment and confinement of people with mental disabilities, the right to refuse treatment, and assisted suicide.

Huefner, Dixie Snow. Getting Comfortable with Special Education Law: A Framework for Working with Children with Disabilities. Norwood, Mass.: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, 2000.

A comprehensive look at United States special education law explained in an understandable language. Important legislation such as Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are discussed among others. A glossary of legal terms, appendix, and an index of court cases are provided.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Law Report. Horsham, PA: LRP Publications, 1979-Present, biweekly.

This journal was formerly known as the Education for the Handicapped Law Report but changed its title in 1981. It provides updates to relevant statutes, regulations, summaries of court decisions and rulings at the state and federal level. This information comes from the courts themselves and the U.S. Department of Education’s various agencies. The journal also provides full text versions of the ADA, IDEA, and other applicable government documents.

Jervis, George A., ed. Expanding Concepts in Mental Retardation; A Symposium from the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1968.

Published in 1968, covers new research in relation to mental retardation in areas such as genetics, environment, and rehabilitation.

Johnson, Mary & the editors of The Disability Rag. People with Disabilities Explain it all for You: Your Guide to the Public Accommodations Requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act. The Avocado Press: Louisville, KY 1992.

A cost effective guide to complying with the ADA. The authors outline how to remove structural barriers and facilitate independent access for the disabled, how to communicate with different disabled individuals, and how to avoid discriminating as it is legally defined. Resources for products and assistance are included.

Jones, Nancy Lee. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Background and Issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2004.

Jones provides an overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), originally enacted in 1975, which authorizes federal funding for the education of disabled children. She addresses issues of recent congressional concern including funding and the provision of FAPE (free appropriate public education) for children with disabilities who have been caught with weapons at school.

Kindred, Michael. The Mentally Retarded Citizen and the Law. New York: Free Press, 1976.

Sponsored by The President’s Committee on Mental Retardation, this volume is a follow up to a conference held by the same committee. Discussed in this work are the personal and civil rights of the mentally retarded as a whole, their rights within the community and institutions, and their rights dealing with crime and corrections. The main focus is on legal and social change in order to accommodate mentally retarded persons the full rights of citizenship.

Krause, Fred J. President’s Committee on Mental Retardation: A Historical Review 1966-1985. Washington, D.C.: The Committee, 1986.

An historical account covering three decades of the President’s Committee on Mental Retardation. Collaboration between government and private agencies and community and individual efforts are the main focus. Several images are provided and a historical background of the committee is given.

Krieger, Linda Hamilton, ed. Backlash Against the ADA: Reinterpreting Disability Rights. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press 2003.

A collection of essays that look at the legal issues surrounding the ADA. Legal issues include accommodation, judicial backlash and the legal definition of disability. Implementation of the ADA on a legal basis is thoroughly covered and relevant court cases are documented.

Lantzy, M. Louise. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: An Annotated Guide to its Literature and Resources, 1980-1991. Littleton, Colo.: F.B. Rothman& Co., 1992.

This resource guide was published in order to provide a comprehensive text of sources for the legal literature and advocacy organizations dealing with the IDEA. It was compiled for parents of disabled children, the legal community and groups concerned with education. The annotated bibliography is divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary sources.

Leone, Daniel A. Physician-assisted Suicide. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1998.

An edited collection of essays on the controversial issue of assisted suicide. Essays cover many aspects on the subject and include works advocating to allow the procedure and opposing views. The legal, moral, and ethical aspects are the main focus of this text.

Levy, Robert M. The Rights of People with Mental Disabilities: The Authoritative ACLU Guide to the Rights of People with Mental Illness and Mental Retardation. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996.

An American Civil Liberties Union handbook on the civil rights of people with mental disabilities. Topics covered include involuntary confinement, treatment, the legal system, and discrimination. The text is in question and answer format with appendices on rights and resources.

Manning, Michael. Euthanasia and Physician-assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring?. New York: Paulist Press, 1998.

An historical look at euthanasia since antiquity and a framework of the current debate of its use. Looks at both secular and religious issues of euthanasia.

Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter. Chicago: The Commission on the Mentally Disabled of the American Bar Association, 1976-bimonthly.

A comprehensive journal that details developments pertaining to the legal profession concerning children with mental and physical disabilities. It is written for the legal community but can be helpful for parents and other professionals. Included are state and federal legislation, state statues, and case summaries. Articles on trends and cases are also in each issue.

Mental Retardation and the Law. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, President’s Committee on Mental Retardation, 1975-1978.

Summaries and updates of state and federal court cases involving issues concerning persons with disabilities. Cases range from accessibility and education to civil actions involving individuals and organizations.

National Council on Disability. Promises to Keep: A Decade of Federal Enforcement of the Americans with Disabilities Act. : Washington, DC: National Council on Disability, U.S. G.P.O., 2000.

Examines the enforcement of the Americans with Disabilities Act using statistical data from the years 1990 to 1999. The text raises concerns about enforcement, lack of leadership, and inclusion. Federal departments involved in the ADA and their roles in enforcement and compliance are also covered.

National Council on Disability. ADA, Americans with Disabilities Act: A Brief Description. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Disability, U.S. G.P.O., 1997.

Details the five sections of the ADA, which were enacted in 1990 to protect the rights of individuals with mental or physical impairments.

National Council on Disability. Voices of Freedom: America Speaks Out on the ADA: A Report to the President and Congress. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995.

The Council provided this five year update on the ADA covering topics such as access, employment, cultural changes, and self-sufficiency among others. Town meetings held in the fifty states to discuss the legislation are also documented by state.

National Council on Disability. The Americans with Disabilities Act: Ensuring Equal Access to the American Dream. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995.

The National Council on Disability, a federal agency ensuring implementation and effectiveness of the ADA, published this five year update on the success of the legislation. Issues covered include employment, transportation, progress of implementation, public services, and accommodations. Appendices include a brief summary of the ADA and statistical information.

New York State Task Force on Life and the Law. When Death is Sought: Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the Medical Context. New York: New York State Task Force on Life and the Law, 2000.

This report was written to contribute to the assisted suicide and euthanasia debate nationally, and in New York State. It was unanimously recommended in the report that the laws in New York prohibiting assisted-suicide should not be changed. Discussed in the Task Force on Life and Law report are existing laws, ethics in the medical community, and social risks of new legislation.

Norlin, John W. NCLB and IDEA ’04: A Side by Side Analysis. Horsham, Pennsylvania: LRP Publications, 2005.

Concerned with similarities and parallels in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Issues discussed are qualifications for teachers and professionals, professional development, parental involvement, private schools and other relevant topics. Appendices give side-by-side analysis of the IDEA and NCLB and relevant sections of each piece of legislation.

Parry, John. Disability Law and Policy: A Collective Vision. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, Commission on Mental and Physical Disability Law, 1999.

Proceedings of an American Bar Association conference with an overview of disability rights and policy from 1960 to 1999 covering the Americans with Disabilities Act, criminal justice system, civil rights and other relevant topics. Challenges of the 21st century are discussed and several recommendations for the disability rights movement are given.

Parry, John. Handbook on Disability Discrimination Law. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, Commission on Mental and Physical Disability Law, 2003.

A comprehensive text on mental disability law covering legal trends, the ADA and other federal legislation, clinical definitions, civil rights and criminal and professional concerns. A glossary of terms is provided giving definitions to key vocabulary, court decisions, and important legislation.

Parry, John. Handbook on Mental Disability Law. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, Commission on Mental and Physical Disability Law, 2002.

Provides a legal and clinical overview of mental disability with discussions on community and institutional rights of individuals with mental disabilities. Criminal and professional concerns are also addressed. A glossary of terms, relevant legislation and court cases and decisions are included.

Parry, John. Monograph on State Disability Discrimination Laws: With 50 State Charts on Employment, Public Services, Public Accommodations, Housing and Education. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, Committee on Mental and Physical Disability Law, 2005.

This text investigates disability discrimination by comparing state statues to each other and federal laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act. Discussions on discrimination focus on housing, employment, public accommodations, and public services. Appendixes are provided comparing each state using these four categories.

Perritt, Henry. Americans with Disabilities Act Handbook. Washington, DC: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, U.S. Dept. of Justice, U.S. G.P.O., 1991.

A three-volume, comprehensive look at the legislation of the Americans with Disabilities Act and all of its facets. It is often updated with published supplements. Provides bibliographical references and appendixes that include court challenges as well as resources.

Perry, Greg. Disabling America: The Unintended Consequences of Government’s Protection of the Handicapped. Nashville, Tennessee: WND Books 2003.

Perry aims to present the effect of the ADA on America as he identifies its unintended and undesirable consequences. In a discussion on abuses of the ADA, he notes that that many able bodied individuals have profited from questionable lawsuits throughout the ADA’s history.

Reams, Bernard D. A Legislative History of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Public Law 101-476 as Amended by Public Law 102-119. Buffalo, NY: William S. Hein & Co., 1994.

Written for the legal community it provides a very detailed look at the IDEA and the legislations history in Congress. Congressional hearings, reports, related bills, and debates over the IDEA are included. Bills introduced but not enacted by Congress are also looked at.

Rosen, Marvin, Gerald Clark, and Marvin S. Kivitz, eds. The History of Mental Retardation. Vols. 1 and 2, Baltimore: University Park Press, 1976.

A two volume collection of selected essays, papers, and speeches from important figures, historical and contemporary, in the field of mental retardation. Institutions, schools, and research are main issues covered. Papers from Samuel G. Howe, Edward Sequin, Henry H. Goddard, and Wolf Wofensberger, among many other are featured.

Santamour, Miles and Bernadette West. Retardation, Corrections, and Retarded Offenders. Washington, D.C.: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1978.

An annotated bibliography broken into sections dealing with the developmentally disabled, corrections, and both combined. Each section also contains a general bibliography for further research.

Special Education from Law to the Classroom. Produced by New York State Commission on Quality Care and New York State Bar Association Committee on Issues Affecting People with Disabilities, 1 hour. 1999.

Through visits to a variety of educational placements, parents, students, teachers, administrators, and an attorney with expertise in special education share their experiences and knowledge regarding the various educational opportunities and rights for children with special needs.

Stanek, Edward. Handicapped People in Society, Their Legal Status, Claims and Human Rights: A Selected Bibliography. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies, 1987.

The author provides a comprehensive bibliography on the general subject of law and disability and its related concepts. The bibliography is limited to the published work mostly from the 1970’s and 1980’s but other sources are included.

Stefan, Susan. Unequal Rights: Discrimination Against People with Mental Disabilities and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001.

Discusses mental disabilities and issues of discrimination, rights, legal issues, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. The focus is primarily on mental illness but other disabilities are briefly mentioned. Attention is given most to disability discrimination law.

Tucker, Bonnie P. Federal Disability Law in a Nutshell. St. Paul: Thomson/West, 2004.

An overview of federal laws meant to protect people with disabilities. Topics range from access and employment to federal legislation such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. A table of relevant cases is provided.

United States. Accountability and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.

A published government document of a hearing on the accountability of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. The committee is concerned with accountability, coordination and quality of education for disabled children and why there is failure for full compliance. Numerous general recommendations and recommendations for transition are given to the committee.

United States. IDEA: Behavioral Supports in School: Hearing of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session, on Examining the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), Focusing on Behavioral Support in Schools to Ensure Safe Schools for Students and Teachers while Protecting the Rights of Students with Disabilities, April 25, 2002. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.

This is a published report of the hearing on behavior and the IDEA before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. Testimony is given and recorded by mothers, advocates, the Superintendent of the Dale County School System in Alabama, and the co-director of the Center for Law and Education. The hearing was convened to address the problems of the current rules on discipline that had been causing distractions and threatening the safety of classrooms.

United States. IDEA: Focusing on Improving Results for Children with Disabilities: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, First Session, Hearing Held in Washington, DC, March 13, 2003. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.

In this published hearing on improving results for the IDEA, committee members heard testimony on improving the legislation before its reauthorization. Discussed during the hearing are the needs to reduce the paperwork burden for teachers, the lack of full federal funding, the overrepresentation of minorities in special education classes, and other inherent problems.

United States. Overidentification Issues within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the Need for Reform. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.

This is a published version of a hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce. The issues discussed deal with the overidentification of minorities for placement in special education classes. As a whole minorities and specifically black students are over represented in the classes. It is proposed in the hearing that better training, evaluation, and intervention be instituted in the general educational setting to correct the problems.

United States. The President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education : Hearing before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session on Examining Recommendations of the President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education Regarding the Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1997 (IDEA), July 9, 2002. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.

Published hearing of testimony by several senators and members of the Commission on Excellence in Special Education. The agenda of the hearing was to give recommendations to strengthen the IDEA. Several of the proposals were prevention, accountability of the federal government, improved coordination, considering disabled students general education students first, and focusing on results rather than the process. A concern of the committee was spending and results of the IDEA legislation.

University of the State of New York Board of Regents. Final Approved New York State Plan for Education of Students with Disabilities: 1993-1995. Albany: University of the State of New York, State Education Dept., Office for Special Education Services, 1994.

This document was published to demonstrate New York’s compliance with the federal legislation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. It details how the Education Department of the state is consistent with the IDEA and provides assurances of statues, regulations, policies and procedures.

Wehman, Paul. The ADA Mandate for Social Change. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes Pub. Co., 1993.

A compilation of articles on the impact and significance of the ADA. Explores issues relevant to the developmentally disabled such as employment, the family, educational reform, accommodations, and attitudinal change.

Weir, Robert F. Selective Non-treatment of Handicapped Newborns: Moral Dilemmas in Neonatal Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Addresses the medical, legal, and ethical aspects relating to non-treatment of handicapped newborns. Infanticide, pediatricians and non-treatment, criminal liability and the law, and what can be considered the ethical standard are discussed.

Wenkart, Ronald D. Appropriate Education for Students with Disabilities: How Courts Determine Compliance with IDEA. Horsham, PA: LRP Publications, 2000.

According to the author, FAPE (a free appropriate public education), while defined in statute has a history of frequent litigation; it is difficult to prove whether an individual has or has not received such an education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Discussed are the terms of an “appropriate” education for individuals with disabilities under IDEA as well as how it can be determined in court.

West, Jane. The Americans with Disabilities Act: From Policy to Practice. New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, 1991.

This book was written for those concerned with public policy and the ADA at the federal, state, and local levels in the public sector. Through research, analysis, and an extensive breakdown of the ADA, West attempts to depict knowledge on establishing and maintaining an accessible and inclusive world for the disabled.

Young, Jonathan M. “‘Same Struggle, Different Difference’: The Americans with Disabilities Act and the Disability Rights Movement, 1964 -1990.” PhD. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2002.

A dissertation documenting the social, political, and legislative history of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Discusses the disability rights movement, comparing the movement with other rights struggles such as the civil rights movement. Legislative efforts leading to the passage of the ADA are also covered.

Zelin, Gerald M. The Constitutional Foundations of Special Education Law. Horsham, PA: LRP Publications, 1993.

A special report on the IDEA, the author contends that the special education legislation pushes the boundaries of federal government authority. Examined in the report is the question of whether the constitution guarantees the right to special education. The conclusion is that the expensive and controversial provisions of the IDEA are not guaranteed by the constitution.

disABILITY and the Media Bibliography

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Adams, Bluford. E Pluribus Barnum Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

Covers the effect that P.T. Barnum had on the U.S. culture with his entertainment approaches. In terms of ‘freak shows,” the “What is it?” exhibit fostered white racial superiority that was engrained into the popular culture. Many other exhibits, according to the author, were used to present bodily differences as racial and societal inferiors.

Adams, Rachel. Sideshow U.S.A: Freaks and the American Cultural Imagination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

A look at the meaning of the “freak show” and the performers of the attractions themselves. This work combines the history of the shows with the resurgence of this form of entertainment in the 20th century. Important to this study is the discussion of literature and symbolism related to freak shows over time.

Bieler, Peter, Kirby Dick and Richard Frank. I am not a Freak. Los Angeles, California: Fox Hills Video, 1987.

VHS uses footage and photographs to describe circus sideshows and the “human misfits” who made their livings working “freak shows.” Also tells the present-day stories of six “misfits” and how they cope in today’s society.

Biklen, Douglas. “Framed: Journalism Treatment of Disability.” Social Policy 16 (1986): 45-51.

Discusses media coverage relating to disability issues and stereotypes of the disabled. Specifically covers assisted suicide, the Baby Jane Doe case, and the conflict between right to life advocates and disability rights activists in the media.

Bogdan, Robert. “The Disabled: Media’s Monster.” Social Policy 13 (1982): 32-35.

Concerned with the portrayal of the disabled by the media, this short article examines horror movies, television, comic books and newspapers. The discussion is focused on the subtle and not so subtle linking of disability with violence. The media’s use of common disability metaphors is the main theme of the article.

Bogdan, Robert. “The Exhibition of Humans with Differences for Amusement and Profit” Policy Studies Journal 15 No.3, (1987): 537-550.

This article is the precursor to Bogdan’s larger work, Freak Show. An overview of the “freak show” from 1840-1940 is given. The author discusses the early attributes of the shows as morally uplifting and educational. According to the author, some “exhibits” choose careers as freaks because of the money and celebrity. Others did so to escape and join a world where they were more accepted for their differences.

Bogdan, Robert. Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1988.

A social history of the “freak show,” this book explores the “convention of presentation” and the social construction of “freaks.” Important to this work are the changing meanings of disability and the exhibition of human anomalies. This work uses a large variety of primary sources including posters, newspaper advertisements and promotional photos.

Browning, Tod, Wallace Ford, and others. Freaks. Turner Entertainment Co.; Burbank, CA : Distributed by Warner Home Video, 2004, 1932.

This movie features a cast of what Browning identifies as real life sideshow professionals. The plot unfolds for the viewer to realize that the “true freaks” are not the sideshow performers, but rather the spectators who seek amusement on their behalf. A controversial film at its time due to the changing views of disability.

Byrd, Keith E., P. Dianne Byrd and Conrad M. Allen. “Television Programming and Disability.” Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling. 8 (Spring 1977): 28-32.

A short article discussing the portrayal of disability on primetime programming. A quantitative approach compares the broadcast television networks and details the type and number of times disability is shown. Recommendations are offered by the authors.

Chemers, Michael Mark. “Monsters, Myths and Mechanics: Performance of Stigmatized Identity in the American Freak Show.” Dissertation, University of Washington 2001.

A dissertation that examines the historiography of the “freak show” and its performers, the author goes in a new direction by presenting “freaks” as legitimate theatrical actors. Instead of the stagnant exhibit with a freak performer sitting still, Chemers is arguing that the “freak show” was a complex theatrical production.

Chindahl, George Leonard. A History of the Circus in America.Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1959.

The Author presents a detailed history of the American Circus. Included is a comprehensive summary of the circus acts, most important the sideshow and its “human abnormalities.”

Dahl, Marilyn. “The Role of the Media in Promoting Images of Disability as Metaphor: The Evil Crip” Canadian Journal of Communication 18, No. 1, (1993).

This short article discusses the use of metaphor by the media in topics concerning disability. The use of the evil and the monstrous in relation to obvious physical deformities and the use of sentimentality and pity are the two extremes in this article.

Dennett, Andrea Stulman. Weird and Wonderful: The Dime Museum in America. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Chronicling the evolution of the dime museum, and everything associated with this entertainment of the past, this book is comprehensive and detailed. There is a lengthy discussion on the “freak show” and the “freaks” exhibited in the dime museums.

Drooker, Arthur and David Ackroyd. Circus Freaks and Sideshows. History Channel, 2000.

A historical documentary of the sideshows and the performers or “freaks” that were put on display during the peak of their popularity. Includes archival footage and photos as well as interviews with modern-day proprietors and performers.

Edelson, Stephen M. Autism in the Movies. Salem, Oregon: Center for the Study of Autism

A short list of movies that were released in the cinemas, featuring actors portraying an individual with autism. Included in the list are Rain Man, The Boy Who Could Fly and many others. This list can be viewed at http://www.autism.org/movies.html.

Eisenmann, Charles, and Michael Mitchell. Monsters: Human Freaks in America’s Gilded Age: The Photographs of Chas. Eisenmann.Toronto: ECW Press, 2002.

A collection of Victorian photographic images taken by Chas Eisenmann during the 1880s. These photos depict the “freaks” or “monsters” of the era of the gilded age, a term coined in 1873 by Mark Twain and Dudley Warner’s satirical novel on the corruption of the post civil war period.

Fahy, Thomas Richard. “Disabling Visions: Freak Shows in Modern American Literature and Visual Culture.” Dissertation, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2001.

This dissertation explores the social functions of the “freak show” in the early twentieth century and what influence the shows and their performers had on artistic imagination. Important to the impact on modern American literature, and what the author calls “visual culture,” is understanding the decline of the “freak show.” A variety of works of fiction are analyzed within framework of the changing attitudes of the freak show.

Fiedler, Leslie. Freaks: Myths and Images of the Secret Self. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.

While dealing with “freaks” and their exhibition, the focus of this book is with the psychic fear people have with abnormal people or people with disabilities. Analyzed are the fears people have associated with certain abnormalities, (i.e. with dwarfs and the fear of never growing up). There is less of a social construction of the freak itself and more of a psychoanalytical exploration of the fears of “normal” human beings.

Gartner, Alan and Tom Joe, eds. Images of the Disabled, Disabling Images. New York: Praeger, 1987.

This book takes on the characterization of disabled people through the function of media images held by non-disabled and disabled alike. The discussion focuses on where these images come from, namely the various media presentations. Essays included in this work deal with the disability rights movement, stereotyping on television and the big screen and journalistic treatment of the issues regarding disability.

Gerber, David A. “Volition and Valorization in the Analysis of the ‘Careers’ of the People Exhibited in Freak Shows.” Disability, Handicap and Society Vol. 7, No. 1, (1992): 53.

Arguing that individuals with physical anomalies are victims of oppression and marginalization within society, Gerber questions the credibility of their consent to a “career” within a “freak show.” Gerber’s analysis examines two works, Don Herzog’s Happy Slaves, and Robert Bogdan’s Freak Show.

Goggin, Gerard; Newell, Christopher. Digital Disability: The Social Construction of Disability in New Media. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. 2003.

Covers issues of disability and technology including the internet, digital broadcasting, and advanced telecommunication. In light of new and advancing technology as well as media, the author suggests that there is a need to understand disability within this context.

Gowland, Ronda. “Freak Fucker : Stereotypical Representations of Sexuality in British Disability Art.” Disability Studies Quarterly. 22 (2002): 120-127.

This article discusses the use of stereotypes in disability art, film, and other forms of media. The author argues that disability art was motivated by the disability arts movement of the 1980’s. Sexuality, political and cultural hegemony are topics covered.

Haller, Beth. “Media and Disability Bibliography Project, Media and Disability Interest Group, AEJMC (1930 to present)” http://www.towson.edu/~bhalle/m&d-biblio.html , February, 2005.

A comprehensive bibliography covering disability and the media. It is presented in alphabetical order, APA format, and includes topics such as journalism, “freak shows,” film and others relating to media from 1930 to the present. Also has links to disability press resources.

Haller, Beth. “The Misfit and Muscular Dystrophy.” Journal of Popular Film and Television. 21, No. 4, (1994): 142-149.

In her article, Haller believes that the MDA telethon compromises people with disabilities, the audience who watches, and Jerry Lewis himself. The argument centers on Jerry Lewis and his actions during the telethon. The author sees the creation of a superior-inferior dichotomy that needs to be changed.

Harrie, Leslie. “Disabled Sex and the Movies.” Disability Studies Quarterly. 22 (4), (2002): 144-162.

Looks at forms of mass media, specifically movies, and the role it plays in “socializing” the general public with disability. Semiotics, the science of signs, is used as a framework. Positive and negative portrayals are discussed.

Hevey, David. The Creatures Time Forgot: Photography and Disability Imagery. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Discusses the use of disabled person’s images in charity and telethon representation. The author criticizes the use of the disabled in perpetuating the metaphor of the victim and the ‘other.’ There is detailed explanation of the disability movement and the social model that is attached with that movement.

Holmes, Martha Stoddard. Fictions of Affliction: Physical Disability in Victorian Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

An exploration of physical disability in Victorian literature, theatre, and culture. The author examines 19th century melodrama, fiction such as the novels of Charles Dickens, and life narratives. Central to the argument is how able-bodied people viewed people with physical disabilities in the 19th century.

Hornberger, Francine. Carny Folk: The World’s Weirdest Side Show Acts. New York: Citadel, 2005.

This is an anthology on “freaks” from sideshows, circuses, carnivals, and PT Barnum’s American Museum. Featuring text and pictures, some of the individuals spotlighted are the Lobster Boy, Jo Jo the Dog Faced Boy, and Chang, the Chinese Giant.

Johnson, Mary and Susan Elkins. Reporting on Disability: Approaches and Issues, A Sourcebook. Louisville: Avocado Press, 1987.

Geared towards journalism students, this sourcebook focuses on issues relevant to people with disabilities and the disability rights movement in regards to reporting news on these topics. Provides suggestions for reporting and research, including interviews, and issues of bias. Discussions include ethics, approaches to reporting, and examples of reporting.

Kamalipour, Yahya R. and Theresa Carilli. Cultural Diversity and the U.S. Media. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

An edited collection of essays that discuss cultural diversity in United States media by looking at racial, minority, and ethnic groups. Beth Haller contributes an essay on news coverage of disability activism and how activists were represented in the media.

Kent, Deborah “In Search of a Heroine: Images of Women with Disabilities in Fiction and Drama.” Women with Disabilities. Michelle Fine and Adrienne Asch eds. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.

This article is part of an edited collection of essays on the topic of women with disabilities. Discussed is a need for disabled women to find a heroine in fiction novels that they can relate to in some fashion. For this essay the author examined 30 plays and novels with disabled women. Only four were discussed at length.

Kokaska, Charles J. “Disabled Superheroes in Comic Books.” Rehabilitation Literature 45, (1984): 286-288.

Most inquiries into disabled characters in comic books focus on deformed villains. Kokaska instead looks at the disabled superhero. The argument presented in the article is that acceptance of disabled superheroes may reflect a larger acceptance within society as a whole.

Larsen, Robin and Beth A. Haller. “The Case of the Freaks: Public Reception of Real Disability.” Journal of Popular Film and Television 29 No. 4, (2002): 164 -172.

The article discusses the Tod Browning film Freaks and the public reception the controversial movie received at its first release. The authors conclude that the changing social views of “freaks” as disabled and having medical problems led to the films disapproval.

Lester, Paul Martin. Images that Injure: Pictorial Stereotypes in the Media. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996.

Covers stereotyping in various media available for public consumption. A variety of negative stereotypes are discussed regarding depiction on television and in the movies. Physical disability is the main focus of the article.

Londino, Lawrence Joseph. A Descriptive Analysis of “The Jerry Lewis Labor Day Telethon for Muscular Dystrophy”. Dissertation: University of Michigan (1978).

The purpose of this dissertation is to describe the history, organization, and production of “The Jerry Lewis Labor Day Telethon for Muscular Dystrophy.” Standing as the most successful and enduring “live television program for philanthropic purposes,” Londino asserts that it has set the precedent for the organizational and production standards of televised fund raising.

Makas, Elaine. “Changing Channels: The Portrayal of People with Disabilities on Television.” Children and Television. Gordon L. Berry and Joy Keiko Asamen Eds. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1993. 255-268.

A review of quantitative studies that determined the number of disabled characters portrayed on television in a determined number of televised hours. The author also explores the use of stereotypes attributed to the disabled including the evil or sinister and the dependent.

Miller, Vassar, ed. Despite This Flesh: The Disabled in Stories and Poems. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985.

An edited collection of written works by disabled authors. The editor attempts to showcase disability culture through “literary excellence.”

Nelson, Jack A. The Disabled, the Media, and the Information Age. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Examining how the media has portrayed the disabled throughout history, as well as how the roles and depictions of this population have changed over time. Insight on the disabled as depicted through television, films, newspapers, and language is also discussed.

Norden, Martin F. The Cinema of Isolation. A History of Physical Disability in the Movies. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, 1994.

A historical perspective on disabilities in film. Norden argues that the general public is rarely exposed to disabled individuals. Therefore, the mainstream media has influenced their perspectives on this group, generating feelings of separateness, pity, fear, and absurdity.

Norden, Martin F. “Reel Wheels: The Role of Wheelchairs in American Movies.” Beyond the Stars III. Paul Loukides and Linda K. Fuller, eds. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1993, 187-204.

This article examines the ways in which the wheelchair and their users have been portrayed in American films. Norden goes as far back as 1904’s The Lost Child and leads up to 1991. A complete list covering these years is included in the article.

Norden, Martin F. “Victims, Villains, Saints, and Heroes: Movie Portrayals of People with Physical Disabilities.” Beyond the Stars. Paul Loukides and Linda K. Fuller, eds. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1990, 222-233.

Dealing specifically with physical disabilities, this article focuses on the history of the portrayal of disability in American film. Many of the movies discussed are war based and deal with injuries related to war. However, there are references to movies dealing with other physical disabilities. Included in the article is a list of movies portraying disabled people starting from 1907 up until 1987.

Peters, Ann. Telethons: A Disability Rag Reader. Louisville: The Advocado Press, 1993.

A collection of articles, mostly from the Disability Rag, that argue against the current use of the telethon for disabled people. The main focus is Jerry Lewis and the MDA Telethon; however, others such as the Easter Seals telethon are also mentioned. The articles are written by disability advocates and people with disabilities who want to promote change in telethon symbolism.

Pointon, Ann and Chris Davies. Framed: Interrogating Disability in the Media. London: British Film Institute, 1997.

Looks at the representation of the disabled in media such as television, film, the arts and written media. Stereotypes are covered within the discussion as well as isolation from popular culture. Geared towards media students.

Puccinelli, Patricia. Yardsticks: Retarded Characters and Their Roles in Fiction. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

This work examines the retarded character in American fiction by analyzing an array of novels. The author breaks down the retarded character into five categories: the yardstick, used to evaluate others, the wise fool who tells it how it is, a catalyst that brings bout occurrences, the window pane that has a unambiguous view, and the accessory that adds to the plot. A bibliography includes both a fiction and nonfiction listing of sources.

Quicke, John. Disability in Modern Children’s Fiction. Cambridge: Brookline Books, 1985.

Concerned with integrating disability topics into classroom curriculums, the author examines children’s novels that deal with one or more disabled characters. Quicke believes that students can better relate to the disabled population, especially school children, by reading themselves into the social, emotional and even historical world created by the author.

Riley, Charles A. Disability and the Media. Hanover: University Press of New England, 2005.

Written by the former editor in chief of the now defunct disability magazine We, this work criticizes all facets of the media’s portrayal of the disabled. Movies, television, the print media, advertising, the Internet and multimedia sources and even the disability media itself are targeted.

Shapiro, Joseph. “Disability Policy and the Media: A Stealth Civil Rights Movement Bypasses the Press and Defies Conventional Wisdom.” Policy Studies Journal 22 (1994): 123-132.

This article discusses the press coverage of the disabled and the use of metaphors in that coverage. Two metaphors that are most often used according to the author, is that of the unlucky disabled person in need of charity or the brave one that has overcome barriers and is considered superhuman or a “super-crip.” The author states that these stereotypes prevent the disabled from being fully included into American society.

Smit, Christopher. “Please Call Now, Before It’s Too Late: Spectacle Discourse in the Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Telethon.” Journal of Popular Culture 36 No.4 (2003): 687-703.

The article compares the Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Association telethon to the historical freak show. There are four criteria that are used for the comparison: money, a repeated sale pitch from a proprietor, the use of a scientific narrative, and lastly the personal tale or patient profile. Smit is not arguing against the MDA telethon but instead he is placing the telethon in a conceptual framework.

Smit, Christopher R. and Anthony Enns. Screening Disability: Essays on Cinema and Disability.  Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2001.

Essays on films portrayal of disability and how it is viewed by the larger society. Covers the negative, positive, and sympathetic images seen in movies such as Tod Browning’s Freaks. The authors provide a critical and theoretical look at film and disability.

Taylor, James. Shocked and Amazed.

A journal completely committed to the sideshow and the “freak” performers that were exhibited. This journal has both a historical look at freak shows, sideshows, circuses and carnivals as well as a contemporary inquiry into working acts and modern day freak shows.

Thomson, Rosemarie Garland. Extraordinary Bodies: Figuring Physical Disability in American Culture and Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

This work deals with the place of physical disability in American culture and the social construction of the body. Central to the argument is the idea of normalcy in America.

Thurer, Shari. “Disability and Monstrosity: A Look at Literary Distortions of Handicapping Conditions.” Rehabilitation Literature 41, (1980): 12-15.

An examination of the literary stereotypes found in fiction and art. The author states that the disabled have endured a bad reputation within literary circles from the times of the Bible. The main argument is that stereotyping in literature and art must be a reflection of the unconscious prejudice of a culture.

Van Kraayenoord, Christa. “Celebrity and Disability.” International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education. Vol. 49 No. 4, (2002): 333 – 336.

This editorial identifies the historic link between the biographies of disabled individuals and their call on fame, as well contemporary forums that connect celebrities and disabilities. As the Special Olympics, beauty pageants, telethons, corporate sponsored events such as “winterfest,” and non disabled celebrities who lobby for disability rights are mentioned, Van Kraayenoord questions negative repercussions.

Zola, Kenneth I. “Depictions of Disability-Metaphor, Message and Medium in the Media: A Research and Political Agenda.” Social Science Journal 22 (1985): 5-17.

This article examines the use of metaphor in media and the message that the use of metaphor depicts. Several common metaphors are discussed such as the victim, the innocent internal child, the “super-crip,” and the survivor. The conclusion is that disability has not been properly depicted it terms of numbers and reality.

disABILITY and Medical Establishment Bibliography

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Bailey, Harriet. Nursing Mental Diseases. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1935.

Presented as a textbook for nurses, the author presents a general overview of mental diseases. A history, legal summary and causation of mental diseases is included in the overview. The objective of the text is to make nursing aware of the disorders they will encounter in hospitals and institutions.

Barr, Martin W. and E.F. Maloney. Types of Mental Defectives. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., 1920.

The author provides a classification system for those deemed mentally disabled. This system defines the categories of mental disability and the care, treatment, or education needed for each classification. Several images are given for each classification.

Battin, M. Pabst, Rosamond Rhodes and Anita Silvers. Physician Assisted Suicide: Expanding the Debate. New York: Routledge, 1998.

A collection of cross-disciplinary essays that have taken the discussion of physician-assisted suicide where the Supreme Court had left it after the decisions of Washington v. Glucksburg and Vacco v. Quill. The essays are broken down into five sections: conceptual issues, those at risk, considering the practice of medicine, legalization, and religious perspectives. There are also appendices that provide the text of the Supreme Court decisions and the Oregon Death with Dignity Act.

Benda, Clemens E. Mongolism and Cretinism. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1949.

The terms mongolism and cretinism were historically used for medical classification of specific developmental disabilities. Benda classifies these disabilities by providing historical analysis, medical issues, prevention and treatment. Images, illustrations and charts are given to help with classification.

Rushton, Arnold, Dorothy Guyot and Herbert Jesse Cohn. Health Care Financing for Severe Developmental Disabilities. Washington, D.C.: American Association on Mental Retardation, 1990.

A study analyzing the use, expenditure, and financing of health care for children with autism and mental retardation. The intention of the study was to influence and make public policy. Data collected is presented in graphs and tables. Topics covered include financing, services, family expenses, use of health care, and recommendations on financing care.

Blackman, James A. Medical Aspects of Developmental Disabilities in Children Birth to Three. Gaithersburg, Md.: Aspen Publishers, 1997.

An accessible text defining medical conditions and health care issues in relation to children with developmental disabilities. Medical terms are presented in alphabetical order with a description, cause, associated health problems, and issues relating to education. Written for medical professionals and students.

Blumer, George, ed. Bedside Diagnosis. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1929.

A guide for diagnosing a variety of diseases, infections, and allergies for medial doctors. It is presented to allow doctors the ability to recognize medical problems without the use of laboratories. Chapter 8 is exclusively devoted to developmental diseases.

Borsay, Anne. “Returning Patients to the Community: Disability, Medicine, and Economic Rationality before the Industrial Revolution.” Disability & Society. Vol. 13 No. 5 (1988): 645-663.

This article argues that physical disability was not specifically an outcome of eighteenth-century industrial capitalism in Britain. The central focus is on the General infirmary at Bath with discussions on politics, moral economy, and economics itself.

Bullard, David G., and Susan E, Knight, eds. Sexuality and Physical Disability. St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Company, 1981.

Discusses a variety of issues involving sexuality including therapy, education, and family planning. Obstacles facing those with physical disabilities relating to sex and sexuality are a focus.

Burak, Jacob, Robert M. Hodapp and Edward Zigler, eds. Handbook of Mental Retardation and Development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

New trends in the study of mental retardation involving development, noncognitive development, and nature are looked at. Research and new terminology regarding the issues of development are chief concerns. This text was written for the professional community.

Cardwell, Viola. Cerebral Palsy: Advances in Understanding and Care. New York: The North River Press, 1956.

Offers opinions of experts from disciplines related to cerebral palsy in conjunction with a community plan for care, treatment, and prevention. The goal of the text is to promote improved treatment for people with cerebral palsy. The book is divided into 3 parts: background and diagnosis, habilitation, and community aspects. Written for professionals and students.

Carter, Charles H., ed. Medical Aspects of Mental Retardation. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1978.

An edited collection of essays in a textbook format concerned with medical knowledge relating to people with mental retardation. Written for medical students and physicians, this text brings together scattered data into one large, comprehensive volume. Includes images of conditions, a bibliography for each chapter, and discussions on diagnosis, nutrition, trauma and other related medical issues.

Davis, Lennard J. Enforcing Normalcy: Disability, Deafness, and the Body. New York: Verso, 1995.

Looks at issues of the body both normal and abnormal especially relating to people with disabilities that the author sees as on the margins of society. There is a focus on deafness and the evolution of what disability means.

Doll, Edgar A., Winthrop M. Phelps and Ruth Taylor Melcher. Mental Deficiency Due to Birth Injuries. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1932.

Written to cover a segment of disability that lacked significant scholarship. The authors focus on injuries that occur at birth, resulting in mental disabilities. Topics covered include classification, testing, and treatment.

Down, J. Langdon. Mental Affections of Childhood and Youth. London: Mac Keith Press, 1990.

A collection of Down’s lectures on classification, idiocy, feeblemindedness and treatment. Also covered are specific characteristics for developmental disabilities.

Eisenberg, Myron G., Robert L. Glueckauf, and Herbert H. Zaretsky. Medical Aspects of Disability. New York: Springer Pub. Co., 1993.

A reference guide for the rehabilitation professional, students and other professionals in related fields. The text looks at specific disabilities proving general descriptions and possible treatment. It is divided into 3 parts: “Key Topics and Issues,” “Disabling Conditions and Disorders,” and “Special topics.”

Eyman, Richard K. Life Expectancy and Mental Retardation. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Mental Deficiency, 1987.

A study of the life expectancy of institutionalized individuals with mental retardation at the Pacific State School. Data collected is presented in a variety of graphs and tables looking at admissions, intelligence levels, training and other factors related to life expectancy.

Gellis, Sydney S. and Murray Feingold. Atlas of Mental Retardation Syndromes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1968.

A visual reference guide for physicians detailing facial characteristics that accompany mental retardation syndromes. Images are supplemented with descriptions and suggestions for treatment as well as potential for inheritance through genetics.

Goddard, Henry Herbert. Feeble-mindedness: Its Causes and Consequences. New York: Arno Press, 1914, 1973.

This study focuses on the several medical and social aspects of feeblemindedness. Using quantitative analysis, Goddard determines the pervasiveness of feeblemindedness and diseases associated with it. Heredity and a eugenic program as a solution to the “problem” are discussed. Images and several statistical charts are given for documentation.

Goddard, Henry Herbert. The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeblemindedness. New York: Macmillan Co., 1913.

The famous case-study of a family and the inheritance of feeblemindedness. Goddard argued that mental traits were inherited and that a solution was needed to halt further procreation of the “unfit.” His solution was a eugenics program.

Goldstein, Sam and Cecil R. Reynolds, eds. Handbook of Neurodevelopmental and Genetic Disorders in Children. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Describes neurodevelopment and genetic disorders and reviews literature of the subjects. Provides resource materials for clinical use and details the impact of genetics on children’s neurodevelopment.

Gumnit, Robert J. Your Child and Epilepsy. New York: demos vermande, 1995.

Written for parents, patients, and professionals, the author presents practical knowledge for those with a child who has epilepsy. Topics include health care, seizures, diagnosis, and daily activities.

Haavik, Sarah F., and Karl A. Menninger. Sexuality, Law, and the Developmentally Disabled Person: Legal and Clinical Aspects of Marriage, Parenthood, and Sterilization. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes Pub. Co.,1981.

Discusses legal aspects of sterilization, marriage and family, and sexual behavior relating to people with developmental disabilities. A history of sterilization and its legal ramifications as well as sexuality training is covered. There is a substantial review of prior research dealing with sexuality and the law pertaining to persons with developmental disabilities.

Lilienfeld, Abraham and Charlotte H. Benesch. Epidemiology of Mongolism. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1969.

A discussion of down’s syndrome covering incidence, factors leading to causation, associated diseases, and mortality rates.

Moore, Byron C. and Jane D. Haynes. Introduction to Mental Retardation Syndromes and Terminology. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas, 1978.

Written for students, parents, and teachers as a basic introduction to mental retardation. Terminology and short simple definitions are provided as well as characteristics and diagnosis of commonly known syndromes. Causation and management are also explained.

Patrick, Hugh T., Peter Bassoe and Lewis Pollock, eds. Nervous and Mental Diseases. The Practical Medical Series, edited by Charles L. Mix. Chicago: The Year Book Publishers, 1916.

Details diseases of the brain and spinal cord including spina bifida, epilepsy, and idiocy among others. Written for the medical community, the editors included a number of works from medical doctors familiar with such diseases.

Philips, Irving and Mary Ann Esser. Prevention and Treatment of Mental Retardation. New York: Basic Books, 1966.

A comprehensive look at issues relating to people with developmental disabilities, specifically mental retardation. Topics include non-medical information on legal and community concerns, issues faced by professionals such as social and research workers, and possible causes and prevention of mental retardation.

Pressey, Sidney L. and Luella Cole Pressey. Mental Abnormality and Deficiency. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1927.

Written as a textbook for college students and professionals such as social workers. Presents methods for research and a general overview of mental diseases. Topics covered include treatment, prevention, and diagnosis. An extensive glossary of terms is also included.

Reilly, Phillip R. The Surgical Solution: A History of Involuntary Sterilization in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

This text is an analytical history of involuntary sterilization in the United States from 1907 through the 1960s. The author looks at those considered “degenerate” and institutionalized persons by examining the intellectual origins of eugenics to the present period. There is a focus on the medical and legal aspects of involuntary sterilization.

Riessman, Frank, Jerome Cohen and Arthur Pearl, eds. Mental Health of the Poor. New York: The Free Press, 1966.

Selected writings focusing on socioeconomic levels and mental health. The text is presented to provide changes in treatment resulting from the passage of the Mental Health-Retardation Centers Act or Public Law 88-164.

Rushton, Alan R. Genetics and Medicine in the United States 1800-1922. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

A History of early medical genetics and a review of the medical literature relating to genetics. The author shows connections of genetics to clinical medicine.

Sipski, Marca L. and Alexander, Craig J. Sexual Function in People with Disability and Chronic Illness: A Health Professional’s Guide. Gaithersburg, Md.: Aspen Publishers, 1997.

An overview of sexual function in people with disabilities. Topics include overcoming sexual problems, sexual function and response, and treatment of sexual dysfunction.

Sports and disABILITY Bibliography

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Appenzeller, Herb. The Right to Participate: The Law and Individuals with Handicapping Conditions in Physical Education and Sports. Charlottesville, Va.: Michie, 1983.

Focuses on sports and physical education participation by people with disabilities through the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Background and history are provided for both pieces of legislation as well as a review of the law and accompanying litigation.

Brown, Richard LeRoy. Swimming for the Mentally Retarded. New York: National Association for Retarded Children, 1959.

Discusses organizing swimming programs for the mentally retarded in the local community. Objectives, the value, and skills associated with the program are covered. The appendix provides relevant forms such as applications and progress reports.

DePauw, Karen, and Susan Gavron. Disability and Sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics, 1995.

A comprehensive text covering many aspects of sports and people with disabilities. Issues covered include history and sports for people with disabilities, organizations and their structure, sport opportunities, access, and adapted equipment among many others. There is a large appendix listing sport organizations and a timeline of disability and sports.

Dinn, Sheila. Hearts of Gold. Woodbridge, CT.: Blackbirch Press, Inc., 1996.

Gives a history of the Olympic Games and the Special Olympics. The stories of several participating athletes are included along with an explanation of the events included in the winter and summer Special Olympic Games.

Haskins, James. A New Kind of Joy: The Story of the Special Olympics. Garden City, N.Y.: DoubleDay, 1976.

The author tells the stories and history of the Special Olympics. Stories are about the athletes, their families, and the volunteers of the games. Eunice Kennedy Shriver wrote the introduction for the book.

Kelly, Jerry D. and Lex Frieden. Go For It! : A Book on Sport and Recreation for Persons with Disabilities. Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt Brace, 1989.

Presents sport and recreational opportunities for persons with disabilities. A variety of games and sports are included with details on qualifications for involvement, rules and regulations. Organizations and resources for the United States are given in the appendix.

Latto, Kay. Give us the Chance: Sport and Physical Recreation with Mentally Handicapped People. London: Disabled Living Foundation, 1981.

Covers physical recreation, sports, and games for people with a mental handicapped. Description and diagrams of the physical activities and the benefits of the activities are given by doctors and psychologists. Films on the subject and organizations in Europe are in the appendix.

Paciorek, Michael J. and Jeffery A. Jones. Disability Sport and Recreation Resources. Carmel, IN: Cooper Publishing Group, 2001.

A look at sports and recreational activities for people with a wide range of disabilities. This work covers 47 different sports with resources on governing organizations, history of the sports, rules, and necessary equipment.

Special Olympics. Official Special Olympics Winter Sports Rules. Washington, D.C.: Special Olympics, 1990.

Provides the statement of purpose, mission, and philosophy of the Special Olympics. The rules and regulations for all of the winter sports are detailed. Dimensions for arena, slopes, and other areas as well as rules for judging competition are given.

Stafford, George T. Sports for the Handicapped. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1947.

First published in 1939, the book was written for the educator to help break assumptions that only “normal individuals” could participate in sports or games that required physical activity.

Steadward, Robert D., Garry D. Wheeler and E. Jane Watkinson, eds. Adapted Physical Activity. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta Press, 2003.

An edited collection of essays written by service providers and researchers intended for the post-secondary student. With a focus on inclusion, this work discusses adapted physical activity in schools, the community, and international disability sports. Equal access, the history of sports for people with disabilities, and sports performance are a few of the topics covered.

Yellen, Andrew G. and Heidi Yellen. Understanding the Learning Disabled Athlete. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas, 1987.

Written for coaches and parents dealing with a learning disabled athlete. Looks at difficulties of coaching a disabled athlete and solutions for coaching application. Details the case of Olympic gold medalist Bruce Jenner and his learning disability. Terms and a guide for evaluating the disabled athlete are found in the appendix.

Weisman, Marilee and Jan Godfrey. So Get on with it: A Celebration of Wheelchair Sports. Toronto: Doubleday Canada, 1976.

A look at wheelchair sports and the Wheelchair Olympic Games. An historical discussion of wheelchair spots, rules, and events such as basketball and track and field are included. The text provides quotes and anecdotes from the athletes.